Tuesday, February 18, 2014

                The DuPont Investigation

                                       Edited by Michael J. Ross

                                   ( Last update: January 8th, 2015 )
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 The following documents will detail evidence into the criminal prosecution of the DuPont & Monsanto Company. Additional information, documents and news articles can be found in the links below.

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The DuPont Investigation - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qn5Pjh00vEI





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Chapter 1: DuPont & Monsanto
Chapter 2: Plastics investigated
Chapter 3: Toxins in Cosmetics  & consumer items
Chapter 3.1: Carcinogens, synthetic dyes & petrochemicals in consumer products.
Chapter 4: Uranium
Chapter 5: DecaBDE
Chapter 6: Dibasic ester (DBE)
Chapter 7: Diphenyl ether
Chapter 8: PVC
Chapter 9: BPA and BPAF
Chapter 10: Bisphenol S (BPS)
Chapter 11: Plastics & environmental damage
Chapter 12: Financial
Chapter 13: DuPont & China
Chapter 14: DuPont & India
Chapter 15: DuPont Pollution & contamination
Chapter 16: Halocarbons
Chapter 17: PCBs
Chapter 18: DuPont & Goldman Sachs
Chapter 19: DuPont & the Carlyle Group
Chapter 20: Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)
Chapter 21: Zytel
Chapter 22: Powder coatings
Chapter 23: Hexavalent chromium
Chapter 24: DuPont, Syngenta & Bilderberg
Chapter 25: Diisocyanates
Chapter 26: Sustainable living
Chapter 27: Genetically modified organisms & DuPont
Chapter 28: Silicon & Silicon dioxide
Chapter 29: Electronic cigarette hazards & cigarettes
Chapter 30: DuPont & Danisco
Chapter 31: Phytosterols
Chapter 32: Pesticides in drinking water
Chapter 33: GMOs
Chapter 34: The United Nations, DuPont & Agenda 21
Chapter 35: History of the DuPont family
Chapter 36: DuPont & The Vatican
Chapter 37: Secret societies
Chapter 38: Bohemian Grove & DuPont
Chapter 39: DuPont & Gillette
Chapter 40: DuPont & Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene or perc)
Chapter 41: DuPont & Lazer Printing
Chapter 42: Holograms & tracking
Chapter 43: DuPont products
Chapter 44: Koch Industries
Chapter 45: Miscellaneous
Chapter 46: GREENGUARD
Chapter 47: Acetal resin
Chapter 48: Interesting and controversial links
Chapter 49: VX Nerve Gas Spill
Chapter 50: Titanium dioxide 
Chapter 51: Factory pollution
Chapter 52: Extra information
Chapter 53: Bio-pharmaceuticals, Transgenic plants & GMOs
Chapter 54: Environmentally friendly technology
Chapter 55: Lazers & Weather modification
            
                                         


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Chapter 1:

DuPont & Monsanto

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Taking Over for Monsanto, DuPont Hunts Down Farmers for Violating the “Intellectual Property” of GMO Seeds -

http://intellihub.com/2012/11/28/taking-over-for-monsanto-dupont-hunts-down-farmers-for-violating-the-intellectual-property-of-gmo-seeds/


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DuPont Agrees To Pay Monsanto $1.75 Billion To Settle Their Patent Dispute Over Monsanto's Roundup Line Of Genetically Modified Seed Technology -

http://www.ibtimes.com/dupont-agrees-pay-monsanto-175-billion-settle-their-patent-dispute-over-monsantos-roundup-line

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DuPont, Monsanto to Partner on New Soybean Technologies -

http://www.wisconsinagconnection.com/story-national.php?Id=705&yr=2013



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The Unholy Alliance: Monsanto, Dupont & Obama -

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ronnie-cummins/the-unholy-alliance-monsa_b_642385.html


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Why Is Monsanto Evil, But DuPont Isn't? -

http://www.sfgate.com/business/investopedia/article/Why-Is-Monsanto-Evil-But-DuPont-Isn-t-4610976.php

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 Dupont & Pioneer

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_Hi-Bred

DuPont Pioneer, formerly Pioneer Hi-Bred is the largest U.S. producer of hybrid seeds for agriculture. They are a major producer of genetically modified organisms. The company also markets and sells hybrid varieties of sorghum, sunflower, soybean, alfalfa, canola, rice and wheat, as well as forage and grain additives. Worldwide, Pioneer sells products through a variety of organizations, including wholly owned subsidiaries, joint ventures, sales representatives, and independent dealers.



1992 Pioneer paid $450,000 to Monsanto for rights to genetically modified soybean seeds that are resistant to RoundUp herbicide.

1993 Pioneer paid $38 million to Monsanto for rights to Bt corn that is resistant to European corn borers.


1997 DuPont acquires a 20% stake in Pioneer and the companies form a joint venture called Optimum Quality Grains LLC.

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DuPont Pioneer acquires 80% stake in South African seed company


http://blogs.desmoinesregister.com/dmr/index.php/2013/07/31/dupont-pioneer-acquires-80-stake-in-south-african-seed-company/article


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EU Commission renews bid to unblock GMO crop approvals

 06 Nov, 2013



(Reuters) - The European Commission proposed on Wednesday that governments approve only the third ever genetically modified crop for cultivation in Europe, but took steps to avert an expected backlash from France and other GMO opponents.

The proposal covers an insect-resistant maize developed jointly by DuPont and Dow Chemical which, if approved, would end Monsanto's current monopoly in Europe's tiny market for GMO crops.



MONSANTO CHALLENGE

Only two GMO crops are currently approved for cultivation in the European Union. Monsanto's insect-resistant maize - known as MON810 - is the only one grown commercially, and was sown on around 130,000 hectares in 2012, mostly in Spain.
That compares with about 100 GMO varieties approved elsewhere in the world, with global cultivation estimated to cover some 170 million hectares in 2012.
The maize variety covered by Wednesday's proposal is known as 1507, and is sold outside Europe under the Herculex brand name. Like MON810, the plant has been modified to produce its own insecticide against the European corn borer.
If the product is approved it is unlikely to lead to an overall expansion in GMO cultivation in Europe but could challenge sales of MON810, particularly in Europe's biggest market Spain.


http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/11/06/us-eu-gmo-cultivation-idUSBRE9A50PH20131106?feedType=RSS&feedName=environmentNews


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EPA's prosecution of DuPont begins today

Media release: 25 June 2013

The trial of DuPont (Australia) Ltd for an alleged herbicide land pollution incident will begin in the NSW Land and Environment Court today.
The Environment Protection Authority (EPA) first brought the prosecution against DuPont last year. DuPont pleaded not guilty and the matter was set down for trial.
EPA Chief Environmental Regulator Mark Gifford said that the EPA alleges that DuPont is responsible for land pollution as a result of herbicide escaping its Girraween plant and causing the death of hundreds of trees and shrubs in nearby gardens in 2011.


 http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/epamedia/EPAMedia13062501.htm




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Chapter 2:


Plastics investigated

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EPA charges DuPont hid Teflon's risks

 

PARKERSBURG, W. Va. — More than 50 years after DuPont started producing Teflon near this Ohio River town, federal officials are accusing the company of hiding information suggesting that a chemical used to make the popular stick- and stain-resistant coating might cause cancer, birth defects and other ailments.

Environmental regulators are particularly alarmed because scientists are finding perfluorooctanoic acid, or PFOA, in the blood of people worldwide, and it takes years for the chemical to leave the body. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reported last week that exposure even to low levels of PFOA could be harmful.

 http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2005-01-18/news/0501180271_1_pfoa-teflon-plant-west-virginia-courtroom



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 Teflon Chemical Implicated in Heart Disease

http://www.consumeraffairs.com/teflon-warnings


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Study Finds Teflon Chemical In Newborns' Umbilical Cords

http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/2006/02/teflon_umbilical.html


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http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/environmental/200603tefloncoverup-pg3.html


DuPont's Teflon Cover-up



EPA Steps In

EPA has been conducting studies on C-8 or PFOA and have found that this man-made chemical (that is not found in nature) is present in just about every living or previously living thing in the industrialized world. In August of 2005 an independent EPA scientific advisory board concluded that PFOA is a likely human carcinogen and recommended that the EPA conduct cancer risk assessments for a variety of tumors that have been observed in rats and mice that were exposed to the chemical.

In December 2005 the EPA stated that DuPont had violated both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) for allegedly failing to file notification about the potential health and environmental risks posed by perfluorooctanoic acid, or PFOA (C-8). In the largest settlement ever made involving a civil administrative federal environmental statute in the history of EPA, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced that DuPont agreed to pay $10.25 million in fines and $6.25 million to fund environmental projects to settle allegations that the company withheld information about the dangers of the toxic chemical PFOA.

In addition, DuPont has already agreed to pay up to $343 million in settlement of a class action arising from the contamination of drinking water in Ohio and West Virginia from its plant near Parkersburg, West Virginia. DuPont will also set aside up to another $235 million for future medical monitoring if the studies find C-8 can make people sick.

Had it not been for the diligence of a "whistle blowing" employee at DuPont, the case might still have been unexposed. This makes one wonder it there are lots of other "C-8s" out there, different chemicals, created by companies other than DuPont, with dubious records, filed away in dusty research files marked "Personal and Confidential."

Compounds associated with Teflon

Major Compounds associated with Teflon Production 

  • APFO: Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (C8)
  • PFOA: Perfluorooctanoic acid (also dubbed C8)- Associated with APFO (a synthesizing aid in synthesis of fluoropolymers) (3)
  • PTFE: Polytetrafluoroethylene - Original Teflon
  • FEP: Resin introduced in 1960
  • ETFE: Tefzel® introduced 1970  
  • PFA: Resin introduced in 1972

Linked to Cancer

  • PFOA: Perfluorooctanoic acid Compound resulting from offgasing of Teflon compounds (has been shown to be transferred from mother to fetus) persistent in environment and found in blood
  • TFE: Compound resulting from offgasing of Teflon compounds

Linked to global warning

  • PFB likely never breaks down in environment
  • CF4: Carbontetrafluoride

Chemical warfare agents

  • PFIB: Perfluoroisobutene
  • MFA: Monofluoroacetic acid
  • COF2: Chemical analog of WWII nerve gas phosgene

Probably never break down in the environment

  • TFA: trifluoroacetetic acid
  • PFOA: Perfluorooctanoic acid 
  • CF4: Carbontetrafluoride
  • PFB: Perfluorobutane
  • Perfluorinated particulate alkanes

Highly Toxic relative to other industrial chemicals

  • PFIB: Perfluoroisobutene
  • MFA: Monofluoroacetic acid
  • COF2: carbonyl fluoride
  • HF: Hydrogen fluoride

Found in blood

  • PHOa: Perfluorooctanoic acid - used in processing Teflon 
  • PHOs: perfluorooctane sulfonate
  • PFOS: Perfluorooctanyl sulfonate - Active ingredient in Scotch Guard

Offgasses of heated Teflon

  • TFE: Tetrafluoroethylene
  • HFP: Hexafluoropropene
  • OFCB: Octafluorocyclobutane
  • PFIB: Perfluoroisobutane
  • COF2: Carbonyl fluoride
  • CF4: Carbon tetrafluoride
  • TFA: Trifluoroacetic acid
  • CF3COF: Trifluoroacetic acid fluoride
  • PFB: Perfluorobutane
  • SiF4: Silicon tetrafluoride
  • HF: Hydrofluoric acid

Temperature Versus Teflon offgas/breakdown and effects 

464°F - Lowest temperature that Teflon particles have been measured
500°F - Searing temperature for meat
536°F - Birds killed in DuPont lab experiments
554°F - Oxidized Teflon particles released
680°F - Toxic gases released
  • TFE - Animal carcinogen
  • HFP - Worker Toxicant
  • TFA - Poisonous to plants
  • DFA - Animal kidney toxicant
  • MFA - Lethal to humans at low doses
  • PFOA - Animal carcinogen
700°F - Preheated grill
750°F - Surface Temperature of PTFE coated pan after heating for 8 minutes on conventional stove
800°F - Electric coil on range top
878°F - Silica tetrafluoride released - Highly toxic by inhalation and ingestion
887°F - PFIB - Chemical warfare agent
932°F - Carbonyl fluoride - Fluorinated version of chemical warfare agent
1,000°F - Drip Pans in stove top burner gas flame on top
1112°F - Trifluoroacetic acid fluoride - degrades to HF and TFA, OFCB Linked to Heart palpations, PFB - Global warming gas
1,202°F Carbon tetrafluoride - contributes to global warming and affects heart, lungs, breathing
1,500°F - Broiling temperature for high end ovens



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Toxic Cookware -



According to risk assessments by the EPA, PFOA’s present significant developmental and reproductive risks in humans with the use of Teflon:

    An increased rate of birth defects has been found in mothers working at DuPont. The company’s response was to move female employees to other sections of the plant in an effort to reduce their exposure to PFOA’s. The chemical coating is also used in fire fighting foam and phone cables. Variants of FPOA’s are used to make the coating on stain resistant carpets and flame retardants for clothing and computers.Teflon can also be found in nail polish removers, eyeglasses, and as lining in pizza boxes.

PFOA’s do not break down in the environment anytime soon, causing forever pollution. According to Tim Kropp, a toxicologist with the Environmental Working Group, if all future exposure is cut off, it would take the body at least 20 years to detoxify Teflon chemicals. Finally, the EPA has recommended that PFOA be classified as a human carcinogen.

http://whatscookingamerica.net/LindaPosch/ToxicCookware.htm

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Makers of flame retardants cut ties with industry front group

Organization had long lobbied for products with toxic chemicals

http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2012-09-02/news/ct-met-citizens-for-fire-safety-20120902_1_flame-retardants-tobacco-and-chemical-industries-citizens-for-fire-safety


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Teflon Is Forever  -

 http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2007/05/teflon-forever -



Teflon, it turns out, gets its nonstick properties from a toxic, nearly indestructible chemical called pfoa, or perfluorooctanoic acid. Used in thousands of products from cookware to kids' pajamas to takeout coffee cups, pfoa is a likely human carcinogen, according to a science panel commissioned by the Environmental Protection Agency. It shows up in dolphins off the Florida coast and polar bears in the Arctic; it is present, according to a range of studies, in the bloodstream of almost every American—and even in newborns (where it may be associated with decreased birth weight and head circumference). The nonprofit watchdog organization Environmental Working Group (ewg) calls pfoa and its close chemical relatives "the most persistent synthetic chemicals known to man." And although DuPont, the nation's sole Teflon manufacturer, likes to chirp that its product makes "cleanup a breeze," it is now becoming apparent that cleansing ourselves of pfoa is nearly impossible. DuPont has always known more about Teflon than it let on. Two years ago the epa fined the company $16.5 million—the largest administrative fine in the agency's history—for covering up decades' worth of studies indicating that pfoa could cause health problems such as cancer, birth defects, and liver damage. The company has faced a barrage of lawsuits and embarrassing studies as well as an ongoing criminal probe from the Department of Justice over its failure to report health problems among Teflon workers. One lawsuit accuses DuPont of fouling drinking water systems and contaminating its employees with pfoa. Yet it is still manufacturing and using pfoa, and unless the epa chooses to ban the chemical, DuPont will keep making it, unhindered, until 2015.

The Teflon era began in 1938, when a DuPont chemist experimenting with refrigerants stumbled upon what would turn out to be, as the company later boasted, "one of the world's slipperiest substances." DuPont registered the Teflon trademark in 1944, and the coating was soon put to work in the Manhattan Project's A-bomb effort. But like other wartime innovations, such as nylon and pesticides, Teflon found its true calling on the home front. By the 1960s, DuPont was producing Teflon for cookware and advertising it as "a housewife's best friend." Today, DuPont's annual worldwide revenues from Teflon and other products made with pfoa as a processing agent account for a full $1 billion of the company's total revenues of $29 billion. Teflon is not actually the brand name of a pan; it's the name of the slippery stuff that DuPont sells to other companies. Marketers deploy the trademark as a near-mystic incantation, a mantra for warding off filth:

Clorox Toilet Bowl Cleaner With Teflon® Surface Protector, Dockers Stain Defender™ With Teflon®, Blue Dolphin Sleep 'N Play layette set "protected with Teflon fabric protector."

Breathing in dust from Teflon-treated rugs or upholstery as they wear down is one way we may be ingesting pfoa. Food is another: Pizza-slice paper, microwave-popcorn bags, ice cream cartons, and other food packages are often lined with Zonyl, another DuPont brand. Technically, Zonyl does not contain pfoa, but it is made with fluorotelomer chemicals that break down into pfoa. Regardless of how it gets into our bodies, once there, pfoa stays—quietly accumulating in our tissues, for a lifetime.

Teflon is not the only nonstick, non-stain brand that has turned out to be stickier than advertised. Scotchgard and Gore-Tex, to name just two, are also made with pfoa or other perfluorochemicals (pfcs). Last year the epa hit the 3M corporation, maker of Scotchgard, with a $1.5 million penalty for failing to report pfoa and pfc health data.

Chemicals similar to pfoa have recently turned up in water supplies of suburban Minneapolis and St. Paul, near 3M facilities.

Unlike DuPont, though, 3M no longer sells pfoa: In the late 1990s, when testing blood samples for a health study, the company found pfoa even in the "clean" samples from various U.S. blood banks that it had planned to use as controls. "They realized they were contaminating the entire population," says Richard Wiles, the Environmental

Working Group's executive director. In 2000, 3M announced that it was discontinuing pfoa production.

When 3M got out, DuPont, which until then had bought its pfoa from 3M, jumped in. Now the company's bottom line depends on whether its product's mythic reputation—Teflon's own Teflon—remains intact.

So far, it seems to be holding. Nonstick pots and pans account for 70 percent of all cookware sold. "Amazingly enough, all the publicity has had no impact on sales," says Hugh Rushing, executive vice president of the Cookware Manufacturers' Association.

"People read so much about the supposed dangers in the environment that they get a tin ear

In fact, nonstick pans are not a major source of exposure to pfoa, because almost all of the chemical is burned off during manufacture. Still, when overheated, Teflon cookware can release trace amounts of pfoa and 14 other gases and particles, including some proven toxins and carcinogens, according to the Environmental Working Group's review of 16 research studies over some 50 years. At 500 degrees, Teflon fumes can kill birds; at 660, they can cause the flu-like "polymer fume fever" in humans. Even at normal cooking temperatures, two of four brands of frying pans tested in a study cosponsored by DuPont gave off trace amounts of gaseous pfoa and other perfluorated chemicals.

A $5 billion multistate class-action lawsuit representing millions of Teflon cookware owners alleges that DuPont has known for years that its coatings could turn toxic at temperatures commonly reached on the stove, but failed to tell consumers. DuPont's website recommends not heating Teflon above 500 degrees (so it doesn't "discolor or lose its nonstick quality") and advises that when overheated, "nonstick cookware can emit fumes that may be harmful to birds, as can any type of cookware preheated with cooking oil, fats, margarine and butter." But who knows how hot a pan gets, and who looks out for birds before fixing dinner? Even while researching this story, I left a nonstick skillet on the stove. The fumes smelled like fried computer, and I vowed not to do it again. But I also decided to go with the hazardous-waste flow, figuring, "We're all toxic dumps anyway." (ewg studies have found a "body burden" of 455 industrial pollutants, pesticides, and other chemicals in the bodies of ordinary Americans.) With toxic substances unavoidable, or at least key

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There remains some groups that claim Teflon is non-toxic.

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        The Weinberg Group
The Weinberg Group is a Washington, DC-based consulting group, specializing in "international scientific and regulatory consulting" and "help[ing] companies protect their product at every stage of its life." Founded in 1983, the firm assists pharmaceutical, pesticide, and chemical companies in regulatory affairs, litigation, and media work.


In an article authored by Paul D. Thacker, Environmental Science & Technology reported that in April 2003, the Weinberg Group proposed a strategy to DuPont to help defuse the growing controversy over the health impacts of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a compound used to make Teflon. Weinberg's Vice-President of Product Defense, P.Terrence Gaffney, wrote, "DuPont must shape the debate at all levels." One of his suggested strategies was to facilitate the "publication of papers and articles dispelling the alleged nexus between PFOA and teratogenicity as well as other claimed harm."

Gaffney also proposed to "develop 'blue ribbon panels' of thought leaders on issues related to PFOA" and to "coordinate the publishing of white papers on PFOA, junk science and the limits of medical monitoring." DuPont confirmed that they had hired the Weinberg Group to help with "scientific third party experts." The five-page 2003 letter also states that the Weinberg Group "has helped numerous companies manage issues allegedly related to environmental exposures. Beginning with Agent Orange in 1983, we have successfully guided clients through myriad regulatory, litigation and public relations challenges posed by those whose agenda is to grossly over regulate, extract settlements from, or otherwise damage the chemical manufacturing industry."

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weinberg_Group

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Cyclohexane

http://toxipedia.org/display/toxipedia/Cyclohexane

Cyclohexane (C6H12) is a naturally occurring chemical that is also produced synthetically and used as a solvent in numerous industries. Acute exposure to large doses can affect the nervous system, and cyclohexane is a mild eye and skin irritant.


Uses

Cyclohexane is a "high volume chemical" and more than 1 million pounds is produced annually in the US. It is used to extrapolate vapor degreasing solvents and as a solvent in certain industries including laboratory chemicals, machinery manufacturing  and repair, rubber manufacturing, nylon production, and varnish and solvents.

In the past, it was used in certain pesticides.


Environmental Effects

Cyclohexane is released into the environment primarily as an air pollutant from industrial sources. It breaks down easily into its component chemicals and it does not bind well to soil, so it eventually enters the groundwater. Cyclohexane has been observed to contribute to the formation of photochemical smog when it reacts with certain other chemicals (#EPA).



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Fluorotelomer alcohol

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorotelomer_alcohol

  Fluorotelomer alcohols, or FTOHs, are fluorotelomers with an alcohol functional group. They are volatile precursors to perfluorinated carboxylic acids, such as PFOA and PFNA, and other compounds.

Environmental and health concerns

Fluorotelomer alcohols are volatile and widely detected in air. Fluorotelomer alcohols can biodegrade to perfluorinated carboxylic acids that persist in the environment and are found in the blood serum of populations and wildlife, such as the toxic PFOA and PFNA. The fluorotelomer alcohols 6:2 FTOH and 8:2 FTOH have been found to be estrogenic.

 The atmospheric oxidation of fluorotelomer alcohols can also result in anthropogenic perfluorinated carboxylic acids. In addition to perfluorinated carboxylic acids, fluorotelomer alcohols can degrade to form unsaturated carboxylic acids which have been detected in bottlenose dolphins. Fluorotelomer alcohols such as 4:2 FTOH, 6:2 FTOH, 8:2 FTOH, and 10:2 FTOH, have been identified as residuals in consumer products such as stain repellents, Zonyl FSE, and windshield wash, among others. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has asked eight chemical companies to reduce the amount of residuals, including fluorotelomer alcohols, from products.

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Be cautious of using food container products such as DuPont™ Zonyl® Paper Protectants that contain water resistant chemicals.


Zonyl® provides oil and grease repellency for a variety of paper products, including liner board, folding cartons, bags, flexible packaging, and support cards for candy/bakery products, and duplicator/reproduction paper.



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http://onibasu


Fluoride and Teflon, Stainmaster, Scotchgard and Gore-Tex


Two items concerning the health concerns and scientific manipulations surrounding fluorine-based products, Teflon, Stainmaster, Scotchgard and Gore-Tex; "Results show Teflon chemicals found in babies' blood":




1) A good overview about PFCs, including contamination of water:

http://www.ewg.org/reports/pfcworld/

Introduction -- Consumers instantly recognize them as household miracles of modern chemistry, a family of substances that keeps food from sticking topots and pans, repels stains on furniture and rugs, and makes the rain roll off raincoats. Industry makes use of the slippery, heat-stable properties of these same chemicals to manufacture everything from airplanes and computers to cosmetics and household cleaners.

But in the past five years, the multi-billion dollar "perfluorochemical" (PFC)
industry, which underpins such world-famous brands as Teflon, Stainmaster, Scotchgard and Gore-Tex, has emerged as a regulatory priority for scientists and officials at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The PFC family is characterized by chains of carbon atoms of varying lengths, to which fluorine atoms are strongly bonded, yielding essentially indestructible chemicals that until recently were thought to be biologically inert. No one thinks so now.

A flood of disturbing scientific findings since

The U.S. EPA peremptorily forced one member of this family off the market in 2000: PFOS, the active ingredient used for decades in the original formulation of 3M's popular Scotchgard stain and water repellent. Shortly thereafter, 3M also stopped manufacture of a related perfluorochemical, called PFOA, that is now under intense regulatory pressure at EPA. 3M formerly sold PFOA to DuPont, which has used PFOA for half a century in the manufacture of Teflon. (DuPont now now makes the chemical itself at a new facility in North Carolina.) Alarmed by findings from toxicity studies and by the presence of PFOA in the blood of more than 90 percent of the U.S. population, EPA is expected to announce initial steps to regulate the chemical in early April (2003).

This report provides the first, comprehensive review ever published of the pollution and health risks posed by PFCs, with special reference to PFOA. It is based on a review of 50,000 pages of regulatory studies and government documents obtained from EPA;

internal documents from DuPont and 3M disclosed in ongoing litigation; and an
examination of a growing body of independent studies on the toxicity and environmental occurrence of PFCs.

This report also explains how major companies like 3M and DuPont, who endlessly boast about their scientific prowess, could get away with permanently contaminating the entire planet for decades amid assurance from the chemical industry that it practices "responsible care" with respect to public health and the environment.



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Gore-Tex: An Introduction to the Material and Treatments


( http://cool.conservation-us.org/coolaic/sg/bpg/annual/v11/bp11-33.html )



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DuPont also offers PFA, FEP, ETFE, Tefzel®, and Krytox® as other non-stick industrial finishes. 

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PET

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Plastic Food and Drink Containers: Too Toxic to Reuse?


One study shows that higher temperatures can cause the release of the heavy metal antimony from #1, PET.


http://sierraclub.typepad.com/mrgreen/2011/04/plastic-food-and-drink-containers-too-toxic-to-reuse.html -

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 Contamination of Canadian and European bottled waters with antimony from PET containers.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16470261

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PET plastic

( Polyethylene terephthalate )



 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PET_plastic

PET was patented in 1941 by John Rex Whinfield, James Tennant Dickson and their employer the Calico Printers' Association of Manchester. E. I. DuPont de Nemours in Delaware, USA, first used the trademark Mylar in June of 1951 and received registration of it in 1952. It is still the most well known name used for polyester film. The current owner of the trademark is Dupont Teijin Films US, a partnership with a Japanese company.


Degradation

PET is subjected to various types of degradations during processing. The main
degradations that can occur are hydrolytic, thermal and, probably most important,
thermal oxidation. When PET degrades, several things happen: discoloration, chain scissions resulting in reduced molecular weight, formation of acetaldehyde, and cross-links ("gel" or "fish-eye" formation). Discoloration is due to the formation of various chromophoric systems following prolonged thermal treatment at elevated temperatures.

This becomes a problem when the optical requirements of the polymer are very high, such as in packaging applications. The thermal and thermooxidative degradation results in poor processibility characteristics and performance of the material


Acetaldehyde

Acetaldehyde is a colorless, volatile substance with a fruity smell. Although it forms naturally in some fruit, it can cause an off-taste in bottled water. Acetaldehyde forms by degradation of PET through the mishandling of the material. High temperatures, (PET decomposes above 300 °C or 570 °F), high pressures, extruder speeds (excessive shear flow raises temperature), and long barrel residence times all contribute to the production of acetaldehyde. When acetaldehyde is produced, some of it remains dissolved in the walls of a container and then diffuses into the product stored inside, altering the taste and aroma. This is not such a problem for non-consumables (such as shampoo), for fruit juices (which already contain acetaldehyde), or for strong-tasting drinks like soft drinks. For bottled water, however, low acetaldehyde content is quite important, because, if nothing masks the aroma, even extremely low concentrations (10–20 parts per billion in the water) of acetaldehyde can produce an off-taste.




Safety

Commentary published in Environmental Health Perspectives in April 2010 suggested that PET might yield endocrine disruptors under conditions of common use and recommended research on this topic. Proposed mechanisms include leaching of phthalates as well as leaching of antimony. Article published in Journal of Environmental Monitoring in April 2012 concludes that antimony concentration in deionized water stored in PET bottles stays within


-

Because of the recyclability of PET and the relative abundance of post-consumer waste in the form of bottles, PET is rapidly gaining market share as a carpet fiber. Mohawk Industries released everSTRAND in 1999, a 100% post-consumer recycled content PET fiber. Since that time, more than 17 billion bottles have been recycled into carpet fiber. Pharr Yarns, a supplier to numerous carpet manufacturers including Looptex, Dobbs Mills, and Berkshire Flooring, produces a BCF (bulk continuous filament) PET carpet fiber containing a minimum of 25% post-consumer recycled content.

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Losing their health and homes to spray polyurethane foam

http://www.treehugger.com/green-architecture/losing-their-health-and-homes-spray-polyurthane-foam.html




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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_leather


Poromeric imitation leather

Sometimes referred to as poromerics, poromeric imitation leathers are a group of
synthetic "breathable" leather substitutes made from a plastic coating (usually a
polyurethane) on a fibrous base layer (typically a polyester).

The term poromeric was coined by DuPont as a derivative of the terms microporous and polymeric. The first poromeric material was DuPont's ill-fated Corfam introduced in 1963 at the Chicago Shoe Show.




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Top 25 Biggest Product Flops of All Time




No. 9: Corfam Fake Leather



http://www.dailyfinance.com/photos/top-25-biggest-product-flops-of-all-time/?photo=2#!slide=982936



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Many people in the military and the DMV were forced into wearing Corfam boots and shoes.


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BARBARA D. MEADOWS, Employee, Plaintiff v. N.C. DEPT. OF TRANSPORTATION,


Plantiff claims the DMV force their employees to wear synthetic leather shoes with a material called Corfam. Some employees have complained about foot problems, including their feet swelling up in these types of shoes. However, the DMV employees were not permitted to wear any other shoes, except the Corfam issued shoes by the DMV.

http://www.aoc.state.nc.us/www/public/coa/opinions/2000/990801-1.htm
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Many plastic shoes toxic - study - 

http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/lifestyle/09/15/09/many-plastic-shoes-toxic-study


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High level of toxins detected in shoes -

 http://www.iol.co.za/business/business-news/high-level-of-toxins-detected-in-shoes-1.707500#.UeYfM23piSo

In a study released last week, the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (SSNC) found high levels of a toxic chemical known as diethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) in 17 out of 27 pairs of shoes manufactured in various countries including India, Indonesia, Tanzania, The Philippines, Sweden and South Africa.

The chemical can cause cancer, severe damage to a developing fetus and the central nervous system.

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Toxic chemical found in school shoes - 

http://www.smh.com.au/national/health/toxic-chemical-found-in-school-shoes-20120519-1yxik.html


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Toxins in leather shoes - 

http://inspirationgreen.com/toxins-in-leather-shoes.html

-

Occupational cancers in leather tanning industries: A short review -

http://www.ijoem.com/article.asp?issn=0019-5278;year=2007;volume=11;issue=1;spage=3;epage=5;aulast=Rastogi

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Be cautious of water resistant clothing with PFCs

What are PFCs - http://www.everydayexposures.com/toxins/pfcs

Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) are organofluorine compounds that have an ability to make products stain, grease, and water resistant, and are popular for their non-stick and stain-repellant uses. Due to these properties, PFCs are often used in paper food containers such as microwave popcorn bags and fast food wrappers. PFCs are considered persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and resist chemical, biological, and photolytic degradation in the environment. These chemicals biomagnify in the food chain and bioaccumulate in animal and human tissues.

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Toxic Chemicals in Pregnant Women? -

http://www.nrdc.org/living/pregnancy/toxic-chemicals-pregnant-women.asp

In January 2010, a study by the University of California San Francisco confirmed that pregnant women carry multiple chemicals in their bodies that can be passed onto their fetus. Published in Environmental Health Perspectives, the study evaluated data collected by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2003-2004. Overall, 43 banned as well as currently used chemicals -- including PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, PFCs, phenols, PBDE flame retardants, phthalates -- were detected in 99-100% of over 250 pregnant women.


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Are your child’s clothes TOXIC? - 

http://www.mygutsy.com/are-your-childs-clothes-toxic/

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Harmful Effects of Polyester Resin - 

http://www.ehow.com/list_6757223_harmful-effects-polyester-resin.html

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The Clothes that Kill You Slowly but Surely -

Nowadays, clothes also contain toxins like formaldehyde, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated chemicals (Teflon) to provide "non-iron" and "non-wrinkle" qualities. Insecticides are even applied in the name of good health!



http://cancerdefeated.com/newsletters/The-Clothes-that-Kill-You-Slowly-but-Surely.html

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Toxic chemicals in children's clothes, explained

http://www.dw.de/toxic-chemicals-in-childrens-clothes-explained/a-17366181

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 Clothing Dermatitis and Clothing-Related Skin Conditions

http://www.lni.wa.gov/Safety/Research/Dermatitis/files/clothing.pdf

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Synthetic Dyes: A look at Environmental & Human Risks -

http://greencotton.wordpress.com/2008/06/18/synthetic-dyes-a-look-at-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly/

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 The 6+ Synthetic Fabrics You Most Want to Avoid, and Why -

http://www.sixwise.com/newsletters/05/12/21/the-6-synthetic-fabrics-you-most-want-to-avoid-and-why.htm  

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 Protect kids from toxins - 

http://www.co.thurston.wa.us/health/ehkids/pdf/toxicbro.pdf

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The Advantages of Organic Clothing -

http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/advantages-organic-clothing-2630.html


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If you are wearing a shirt with a printed image on the shirt, it is good to make sure
that you are wearing a shirt that is printed with non-toxic ink. Try to wear certain types of natural/organic clothing and dyes, if you want to avoid many harmful chemicals. This can often be difficult with the amount of synthetic dyes used in many everyday consumer items.


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SILK SCREEN PRINTING  -

http://www.uic.edu/sph/glakes/harts1/HARTS_library/silkscrn.txt

 Silk screen printing is one of the most hazardous processes in the arts and crafts. 

Dermatitis, narcosis (dizziness, light-headedness, fatigue, nausea, lack of
coordination and headaches), eye irritation, adverse reproductive hazards including increased risk of miscarriage, and serious neurological problems can all result from the processes of screen printing.

 Traditionally, silk screen printing has been performed using organic solvent-based materials.  Water-based inks containing less hazardous ingredients provide a safer and increasingly popular alternative.

Many silk screen inks contain many hazardous chemicals and solvents. Poster inks can contain toluene and xylene, which are highly toxic aromatic hydrocarbons, and large amounts of mineral spirits. Other inks, e.g. vinyl inks, can contain large amounts of other highly toxic solvents, for example, isophorone


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Organic Screen Printing - 

 http://organic.lovetoknow.com/Organic_Screen_Printing


Organic screen printing is an important thing to consider when you are out shopping for organic clothing. Even though you may be purchasing an organic shirt, if it is printed with toxic inks you may not be doing as much for the environment as you think. The good news is there are earth-friendly screen printing methods that are a good choice over traditional screen printing methods.

Traditional printing ink poses a serious danger to the air we breathe, the water we
drink and the food we eat. This is because toxic chemicals that are produced during the manufacturing and disposal processes, as well as during the use of this ink, are released into the environment.

Plastisol, the traditionally used ink for screen printing, is manufactured by using a liquefied form of polyvinyl chloride, or PVC. The chlorine-based chemicals that are formed when this product is manufactured react with other chemicals to create dioxins, PCBs and other toxic compounds. In addition, the plasticizers used to make this ink flexible are carcinogenic and continue to be released even after you have purchased the product. So even if you have purchased an organic hemp or cotton shirt, your purchase may not be as environmentally friendly as you think it is.


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IG Farben


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IG_Farben

Predecessors of IG Farben

At the beginning of the 20th century, the German chemical industry dominated the world market for synthetic dyes. The three major firms BASF, Bayer and Hoechst produced several hundred different dyes, along with the five smaller firms Agfa, Cassella, Chemische Fabrik Kalle, Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron and Chemische Fabrik vorm. Weiler-ter Meer concentrated on high-quality specialty dyes. In 1913, these eight firms produced almost 90 percent of the world supply of dyestuffs and sold about 80 percent of their production abroad. The three major firms had also integrated upstream into the production of essential raw materials, and they began to expand into other areas of chemistry such as pharmaceuticals, photographic film, agricultural chemicals and electrochemicals.

World War II overview

During the planning of the occupation of Czechoslovakia and the invasion of Poland, IG Farben cooperated closely with Nazi officials and directed which chemical plants should be secured and delivered to IG Farben.
In 1941, an investigation exposed a "marriage" cartel between John D. Rockefeller's United States-based Standard Oil Co. and I.G. Farben. It also brought new evidence concerning complex price and marketing agreements between DuPont, a major investor in and producer of leaded gasoline, United States Industrial Alcohol Company and its subsidiary, Cuba Distilling Co. The investigation was eventually dropped, like dozens of others in many different kinds of industries, due to the need to enlist industry support in the war effort.
IG Farben held the patent for the pesticide Zyklon B, and owned 42.2 percent (in shares) of Degesch (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung) which manufactured it. IG Farben also had managers in Degesch's Managing Committee. Of the 24 directors of IG Farben indicted in the so-called IG Farben Trial (1947–1948) before a U.S. military tribunal at the subsequent Nuremberg Trials, 13 were sentenced to prison terms between one and eight years.

 BASF and Hoechst to jointly exploit the patent on the Heumann-Pfleger indigo synthesis.

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How Green Are Your Jeans?


 Some 450 million pairs of jeans are sold in the United States each year -- 1.5 pairs for every man, woman, and child. The average woman has eight pairs in her closet. Chances are that to make those jeans, cotton crops were drenched in pesticides; fibers were stained with toxic dyes; and the resulting fabric was sandblasted, chemically softened, and ripped and scrunched to create the wrinkles and tears that make new jeans look perfectly broken in.

There is another option: the eco-minded can invest in a pair of jeans woven from organic cotton, dyed with natural indigo, and faded with nontoxic ozone.

 http://www.onearth.org/article/how-green-are-your-jeans

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The dirty secret behind jeans and bras


 http://www.greenpeace.org/eastasia/news/stories/toxics/2010/textile-pollution-xintang-gurao/


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Indigo dye



In 1897, 19,000 tons of indigo were produced from plant sources. Largely due to advances in organic chemistry, production by natural sources dropped to 1,000 tons by 1914 and continued to contract. These advances can be traced to 1865 when the German chemist Adolf von Baeyer began working on the synthesis of indigo. He described his first synthesis of indigo in 1878 (from isatin) and a second synthesis in 1880 (from 2-nitrobenzaldehyde). The vinyl group can be oxidized in a number of different ways to yield 2-nitrobenzaldehyde.
 The synthesis of indigo remained impractical, so the search for alternative starting materials at BASF and Hoechst continued. The synthesis of N-(2-carboxyphenyl)glycine from the easy to obtain aniline provided a new and economically attractive route. BASF developed a commercially feasible manufacturing process that was in use by 1897. In 2002, 17,000 tons of synthetic indigo were produced worldwide.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heumann_indigo_synthesis#Chemical_synthesis



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2-nitrobenzaldehyde

The vinyl group can be oxidized in a number of different ways to yield 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. 2-nitrobenzaldehyde also can also contain the chemical styrene.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2-nitrobenzaldehyde
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Styrene


Styrene is regarded as a "hazardous chemical", especially in case of eye contact, but also in case of skin contact, of ingestion and of inhalation, according to several sources. Styrene is largely metabolized into styrene oxide in humans, resulting from oxidation by cytochrome P450. Styrene oxide is considered toxic, mutagenic, and possibly carcinogenic. Styrene oxide is subsequently hydrolyzed in vivo to styrene glycol by the enzyme epoxide hydrolase. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has described styrene to be "a suspected toxin to the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and respiratory system, among others." On 10 June 2011, the U.S. National Toxicology Program has described styrene as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen". However, a STATS author describes a review that was done on scientific literature and concluded that "The available epidemiologic evidence does not support a causal relationship between styrene exposure and any type of human cancer". Despite this claim, work has been done by Danish researchers to investigate the relationship between occupational exposure to styrene and cancer. They concluded, "The findings have to be interpreted with caution, due to the company based exposure assessment, but the possible association between exposures in the reinforced plastics industry, mainly styrene, and degenerative disorders of the nervous system and pancreatic cancer, deserves attention". The Danish EPA recently concluded that the styrene data do not support a cancer concern for styrene.


The U.S. EPA does not have a cancer classification for styrene, but currently is evaluating styrene's cancer-causing potential through its EPA|Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) program. The U.S. National Toxicology Program of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services also currently is evaluating styrene's potential toxicity To date, no regulatory body anywhere in the world has classified styrene as a known human carcinogen, although several refer to it in various contexts as a possible or potential human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer considers styrene to be "possibly carcinogenic to humans". Chronic exposure to styrene leads to tiredness/lethargy, memory deficits, headaches and vertigo.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Styrene

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STYROFOAM THE SILENT KILLER

 http://www.olivegreen.com.sg/pdf/Styrofoam%20Report%20-%20OliveGreen%20Marketing.pdf



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Are You or Your Family Eating Toxic Food Dyes?


Food dyes are one of the most widely used and dangerous additives. While the European Union has recently placed regulations on labeling food dyes to inform consumers of the health risks, the United States has no such requirement.
Here are some of the most common food dyes used today, according to the Food Freedom Network:
  • Blue #1 (Brilliant Blue)
    An unpublished study suggested the possibility that Blue 1 caused kidney tumors in mice. What it's in: Baked goods, beverages, desert powders, candies, cereal, drugs, and other products. 
  •  
  • Blue #2 (Indigo Carmine)
    Causes a statistically significant incidence of tumors, particularly brain gliomas, in male rats. What it's in: Colored beverages, candies, pet food, & other food and drugs. 

  • Citrus Red #2
    It's toxic to rodents at modest levels and caused tumors of the urinary bladder and possibly other organs. What it's in: Skins of Florida oranges. 
  •  
  • Green #3 (Fast Green)
    Caused significant increases in bladder and testes tumors in male rats. What it's in: Drugs, personal care products, cosmetic products except in eye area, candies, beverages, ice cream, sorbet, ingested drugs, lipsticks, and externally applied cosmetics. 
  •  
  • Red #3 (Erythrosine)
    Recognized in 1990 by the FDA as a thyroid carcinogen in animals and is banned in cosmetics and externally applied drugs. What it's in: Sausage casings, oral medication, maraschino cherries, baked goods, and candies. 
  •  
  • Red #40 (Allura Red)
    This is the most-widely used and consumed dye. It may accelerate the appearance of immune system tumors in mice. It also causes hypersensitivity (allergy-like) reactions in some consumers and might trigger hyperactivity in children. What it's in: Beverages, bakery goods, dessert powders, candies, cereals, foods, drugs, and cosmetics. 
  •  
  • Yellow #5 (Tartrazine)
    Yellow 5 causes sometimes-severe hypersensitivity reactions and might trigger hyperactivity and other behavioral effects in children. What it's in: Pet foods, numerous bakery goods, beverages, dessert powders, candies, cereals, gelatin desserts, and many other foods, as well as pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. 
  •  
  • Yellow #6 (Sunset Yellow)
    Caused adrenal tumors in animals and occasionally causes severe hypersensitivity reactions. What it's in: Color bakery goods, cereals, beverages, dessert powders, candies, gelatin deserts, sausage, cosmetics, and drugs.

http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2011/02/24/are-you-or-your-family-eating-toxic-food-dyes.aspx


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Blue Dye Is More Toxic To Our Health Than We Thought



After evaluating the health consequences of using this blue dye, they found that it could be seeping into our bloodstream and destroying our gastrointestinal system. In addition, there are concerns that it could inhibit cell respiration, which could lead to ADHD, allergies and asthma. And, when Brilliant Blue was used in feeding tubes, a 2003 study proved that it had links to blue-tinged skin, urine, and feces, as well as hypotension and even death.
Why is this dye so harmful? The researchers say it can get into our bloodstream when the skin’s barrier is vulnerable (like after shaving) or when the dyes are put onto the mucous membrane of the tongue (like from a lollypop).
So why is it still legal to put in our food and cosmetics?
It shouldn’t be, say the researchers. They concluded that it should be banned at least from things like hard candies (which sit on the tongue and expose us to more dye absorption) and certain cosmetics. Will that happen? Probably not anytime soon because, of course, the Association of Color Manufacturers disagree with this study.

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Carcinogenic Chemical: Disperse Blue 1


Disperse Blue 1 is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on evidence of malignant tumor formation in experimental animals to an unusual degree with regard to incidence, site, and type of tumor (NTP 1986), and because it is an anthraquinone and therefore, structurally related to other substances listed in a previous Annual Report on Carcinogens as either  known to be human carcinogens or reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens (NTP 1994).

"Over 3 million people in the United States use hair color preparations containing
Disperse Blue 1 in semipermanent hair color formulations at concentrations of less than 1%. Disperse Blue 1 has been used as a fabric dye for nylon, cellulose acetate and triacetate, and polyester. It has also been used for surface dyeing of thermoplastics and as a solvent dye in cellulose acetate plastics. Disperse Blue 1 is also used to dye fur, sheepskins, acetate, nylon, and other synthetic fibers (NTP 1986, IARC 1990, HSDB 2001)."



http://www.abloggmeration.com/2011/04/carcinogenic-chemical-disperse-blue-1.html

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Disperse Blue 1 - National Toxicology Program


Report on Carcinogens, Twelfth Edition (2011)
National Toxicology Program, Department of Health and Human Services
Disperse Blue 1
http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/twelfth/profiles/DisperseBlue1.pdf

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Toxicity of Food Drug and Cosmetic Blue No. 1 Dye
in Critically Ill Patients

The addition of dye, particularly Food Drug and Cosmetic Blue No. 1 (FD&C Blue No. 1), to enteral feedings is commonly employed for the detection of aspiration in the critical care setting. However, evidence suggests that this dye is potentially toxic under some clinical conditions. In contrast to early investigations demonstrating limited absorption of FD&C Blue No. 1 when administered to healthy animals, significant absorption of the dye has been reported in critically ill patients, presumably due to disruption of the integrity of the intestinal
barrier. This is a significant concern given the documented
cytotoxicity of the dye in vitro, and could account for adverse outcomes documented in association with blue dye absorption.

http://journal.publications.chestnet.org/pdfaccess.ashx?ResourceID=2110398&PDFSource=13

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http://books.google.com/books?id=FDisTRAhLRoC&pg=PA154&lpg=PA154&dq=Indigo+carmine+dupont&source=bl&ots=PmAzLSCl-c&sig=2adTmkvujCSNfRjkjvIf8_hjYmg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=TMjxUvHSEIPEyQGB7YDQAQ&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Indigo%20carmine%20dupont&f=false


CRC HANDBOOK of FOOD, DRUG, and COSMETIC EXCIPIENTS


Page 151



(FD&C Blue #2)

 Available formulations

A. Drugs

 Indigo carmine is a common color additive in oral tablets and capsules and is also used in some nylon sutures. An injectable preparation, containing 0.8% indigo carmine, is available in 5 ml ampules for diagnostic use.

TABLE OF COMMON DRUG PRODUCTS

Oral Drug Products

Trade name                                 Manufacturer

Coumadin                                     DuPont
Moban Tablet                               DuPont
Percocet demi tablet                     DuPont
Valpin 50 tablet                            DuPont

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Some people will debate the various outcomes of medical experiments used with many chemicals. This would include the toxicity of many synthetic dyes, including blue dyes such as  " Coomassie Brilliant Blue - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brilliant_Blue_G  ."  

 Coomassie Brilliant Blue is being used for medicinal purposes for spinal injuries.

 Coomassie Brilliant Blue is not to be confused with Brilliant Blue FCF (Blue 1)  - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brilliant_Blue_FCF




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Blue food dye reduces paralysis from spinal injuries - but turns you blue


I'll admit a personal interest in this story: two years ago, a friend of mine, Lenna, had a nasty motorcycle accident, and I was present at the scene. It was clear she had spinal injuries - her back was twisted fairly badly. But she was able to move her feet and wiggle her toes, so we held out hope that the injury wouldn't be too severe.

As it turned out, she became a paraplegic, with virtually no feeling or movement below her navel. The original injury, as it turns out, does a certain amount of damage to the spinal cord - but the major, unfixable damage is done over the next few hours and days.

Much of this is because of a chemical called adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. ATP is used as a kind of cellular battery to deliver energy to cells around the body in normal life. But in the event of spinal trauma, the area around the injury is flooded with ATP, which causes otherwise healthy neurons to fire like crazy until they burn themselves out and die. It also increases the swelling around the wound. Swelling around an injury site is a positive healing factor in most parts of the body, but the spinal cord lives in a tightly enclosed column of bone, and the swelling, on top of the bleeding from the trauma, can cut off oxygen supply to the lower spinal cord.

In effect, a patient might receive a spinal injury of low or medium severity - but the actions of ATP in the hours and days after the trauma can completely destroy the function of the spinal cord, leaving patients paralyzed. This is exactly what happened to Lenna.

But a study published in July 28's Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) seems to show that it's possible to block the actions of ATP and greatly reduce the severity and permanence of spinal injuries - using the same type of food dye that gives blue M&Ms their color, a food dye called Brilliant Blue G, or BBG.

BBG can be administered intravenously - so there's no need to inject directly into the injury site - and it has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, which gives it access to the spinal cord. It happens to bind to the same neuroreceptor (P2X7) as the ATP binds to - but it has a stronger affinity for the receptor than ATP has - so it effectively blocks the action of the ATP at the injury site.

http://www.gizmag.com/blue-food-dye-spinal-injury-trauma-bbm/12474/




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-
Chapter 3.0:

Toxins in Cosmetics  & consumer items 


----

Insider Trading Trends in these Consumer Non-Cyclical Stocks


 Inter Parfums, Inc. (NASDAQ:IPAR): Over the past six months, insiders have bought 1,049,630 shares and have sold -1,706,900 shares, for a net of -657,270 shares. The shares recently traded at $19.89 and its market capitalization is $607,322,900. About the company: Inter Parfums, Inc. provides prestige and mass market perfumes and cosmetics on a worldwide basis. The Company owns or licenses various prestige brand names, including Burberry, S.T. Dupont, Paul Smith, Molyneux, Weil, and Christian Lacroix. Inter Parfums mass markets its products under the Jean Philippe brand name.

 http://wallstcheatsheet.com/stocks/insider-trading-trends-in-these-consumer-non-cyclical-stocks.html/

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 Toxic Perfume Ingredients Linked to Cancer, Sperm Damage -

 http://www.rodale.com/perfume-ingredients

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 Is Perfume A Brilliantly Marketed Toxin? 

 http://www.grownups.co.nz/read/health/health_wellbeing/is-perfume-a-brilliantly-marketed-toxin

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 Cosmetics and Fragranced Products Pose High Risks for Breast Cancer and Other Illnesses


Makeup kits in department stores typically contain, in varying combinations, the following products: foaming cleanser, body mist, body lotion, eau de toilette or parfum spray, lipstick, body cream, facial cream, body and shower gel, powder blusher, perfume spray, skin cream, hand lotion, eyebrow pencil, moisturizers, lip gloss and brushes. The cosmetic give-away initiative is very popular among breast cancer survivors. I have read reports of some women driving over 100 miles one-way to attend the classes. Glorifying articles with testimony from the breast cancer survivors have appeared in the newspapers. On the surface, giving free cosmetics to breast cancer survivors may appear to the unsuspecting to be a grand and benevolent gesture.




http://www.breastcanceroptions.org/cosmetics_and_fragrances_pose_high_risks_0.aspx


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

 Tests Find Cancer-Causing Chemical In 98 Personal Care Products -


 http://consumerist.com/2013/08/27/tests-find-cancer-causing-chemical-in-98-personal-care-products/
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Beneath The Skin



http://www.iehn.org/filesalt/IEHNCosmeticsReportFin.pdf

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Chapter 3.1

Carcinogens, synthetic dyes & petrochemicals in consumer products.


--------------

 

A LIST OF KNOWN CARCINOGENS

 http://www.mcnallyinstitute.com/Charts/Carcinogens.html

Known carcinogens are defined as "those substances for which the evidence from human studies indicates that there is a casual relationship between the exposure to the substance and human cancer."

In the following list I have noted some commercial uses for each of the carcinogens shown. As you would expect, this is a developing subject.
Be sure to use dual seals any time you have to pump these chemicals.

4-Aminobiphenyl...... No commercial use in the United States. Was used as a rubber antioxidant and as a reagent for detecting sulfates.

Analgesic mixtures containing Phenacetin...... Prescription and over the counter drugs.

Arsenic and certain Arsenic compounds...... Pesticides, wood preservatives, alloying additive, glass and nonferrous alloys.

Asbestos...... Insulation, gasketing, packing, coatings, plastics, textiles, friction materials.

Azathioprine...... Medical use.

Benzene ... Solvent, gasoline additive.

Benzidine ..... Dyes in textile and paper

Bis(chloromethyl)ether and technical grade Chloromethyl Methyl Ether ..... Synthesis of plastic and ion exchanger resins

1,4-Butanediol Dimethylsulfonate (Myleran) ..... Medical use.

Chlorambucil ..... Medical use. Chromium and certain Chromium compounds ..... Stainless steel, pigment, medical, plating, wood treatment, paint.

Conjugated Estrogens ..... Medical uses.

Cyclophosphamide ..... Medical uses.

Diethylstilbestrol ..... Medical uses.

Melphalan ..... Medical uses.

Methoxsalen with Ultra-violet A Therapy (PUVA) ..... Medical uses.

Mustard Gas ..... Biological studies, weapons.

2-Naphthylamine ..... Dyes, rubber, used only for research purposes.

Thorium Dioxide ..... Nuclear, flame spraying, welding electrodes, high temperature ceramics.

Vinyl Chloride ..... Plastics, wrapping film, phonograph records, credit cards, floor tiles.

In addition to the above chemicals there are substances which may reasonably be anticipated to be carcinogens. Defined as "those for which there is a limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans or sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals".

2-Acetylaminofluorene ..... Medical uses.

Acrylonitrile ..... Synthetic fibers resins, plastics, elastomers .

Adriamycin ..... Medical uses.

Aflatoxins ..... Research.

2-Aminoanthraquinone ..... Dyes, paints plastics, rubber, printing inks.

o-Aminoazotoluene ..... Pigments, coloring oils, wax polishes.

1-Amino-2-methyllanthraquinine ..... Dye for synthetic fibers as well as animal furs.

Amitrole ..... Herbicide, now limited to non-crop applications.

o-Anisidine Hydrochloride ..... Dyes.

Benzotrichloride ..... Plastics, dyes and pigments.

Beryllium and certain Beryllium compounds ..... Alloys for aerospace applications, ceramic additive to glass and plastic.

Bischloroethyl Nitrousourea ..... Medical uses

1,3-Butadiene ..... Synthetic rubber, tires, nylon carpet backing, latex adhesives.

Cadmium and certain Cadmium compounds ..... Coating and plating.

Carbon Tetrachloride ..... Production of Freon 11 & 12, degreasing, plastic and resin production.

Chlorendic Acid ... Flame retardant, foams.

Chlorinated Parraffins (C12, 60% Chlorine) ..... Lubricant additive, flame retardant, rubber production

1-(2-Chloroethy)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) ... Medical uses.

Chloroform ..... Production of fluorocarbon, refrigerant, heat transfer medium in fire extinguishers.

3-Chloro-2-methylpropene ..... Fumigant, textile additive, plastics.

4-Chloro-o-phenylenediamine ..... Hair dye, photographic chemicals.

C.I. Basic Red 9 Monohydrochloride ..... Dye for textiles, leather printing inks, china clay.

p-Cresidine ..... Dyes.

Cupferron ..... A reagent to separate tin from zinc and copper and iron from other metals.

Dacarbazine ... Medical uses.

DDT ..... Insecticide. In the US. it used only under Public Health Service supervision.

2,4-Diaminoanisole Sulfate ..... Fur, acrylic fiber, polyester, wool , cotton and hair dye.

2,4Diaminotoluene ..... Polyurethane, dye.

1,2-Dibromo-3-ch loropropane ..... Soil fumigant.

1,2-Dibromoethane (EDB) ..... Gasoline antiknock additive, pesticide.

1,4-Dichlorobenzene ..... Space deodorant (toilets, rooms) germicide.

3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine and 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine Dithydrochloride ..... Pigments.

1,2-Dichlorethane ..... Component of leaded fuel, production of vinyl chloride.

Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) ..... Solvent in paint removers, manufacture of vitamins, degreasing agent.

1,3-Dichloropropene (Technical Grade) ..... Pesticides.

Diepoxybutane ..... Curing agent for polymers.

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate ..... Used to make poly vinyl chloride.

Diethyl Sulfate ..... Surfactants, dyes, agricultural chemicals.

Diglycidyl Resorcinol Ether ..... Liquid epoxy resin.

3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine ..... Production of azo dyes.

4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene ..... To color polishes and other wax products.

3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine ..... Dye, chlorine test kits.

Dimethylcarbamoyl Chloride ..... Dyes, pesticide.

1,1-Dimethylhydrazine ..... Propellant for liquid fuel rockets.

Dimethyl Sulfate ..... Used to manufacture other chemicals.

Dimethylvinyl Chloride ..... Organic synthesis.

1,4-Dioxane ..... Stabilizer in chlorinated solvents.

Direct Black 38 ..... Dye.

Direct Blue 6 ..... Dye.

Epichlorohydrin ..... Epoxy resins.

Estrogens (Not Conjugated): Estradiol-17ß ..... Medical uses.

Estrogens (Not Conjugated): Estrone ..... Medical uses.

Estrogens (Not Conjugated): Ethinylestradiol ..... Medical uses.

Estrogens (Not Conjugated): Mestranol ..... Medical uses.

Ethyl Acrylate ..... Paper coatings, emulsion based polymers.

Ethylene Oxide ..... Manufacture of ethylene glycol and polyester.

Ethylene Thiourea .... Rubber, O-rings, electroplating.

Formaldehyde (Gas) ..... Adhesives, chemical production, Medical uses.

Hexachlorobenzene ..... Pesticide.

Hexamethylphossphoramide ..... Solvent for polymers, de-icing additive for jet fuels.

Hydrazine and Hydrazine Sulfate ..... Agricultural chemicals, rocket fuel, oxygen scavenger in boiler feed water.

Hydrazobenzene ..... Dye, additive to motor oil.

Iron Dextran Complex ..... Medical uses.

Kepone® (Chlordecone) ..... Insecticide, no longer used in the US.

Lead Acetate and Lead Phosphate ..... Drier in paints and varnish, colorant in hair dyes.

Lindane and other Hexachlorocyclohexane Isomers ..... Insecticidal treatment for wood, grain and live stock.

2-Methylaziridine (Proplyleneimine) ..... Paper, textile, rubber.

4,4'-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA) ..... Curing agent.

4,4'-Methylenebis(N,N-dimethyl)benzenamine ..... Dye.

4,4'-Methylenedianiline and its Dihydrochloride ..... Manufacture of polyisocynates and isocyanates.

Metronidazole ..... Medical uses.

Michler's Ketone ..... Dyes and pigments.

Mirex ..... Pesticide, fire retardant.

Nickel and certain Nickel compounds ..... Stainless and alloy steel.

Nitrilotriacetic Acid ..... Detergent, water treatment.

5-Nitro-o-Anisidine ..... Dye.

Nitofen ..... No present commercial use. Was a herbicide.

Nitrogen Mustard Hydrochloride ..... Medical uses.

2-Nitropropane ..... Solvent, inks, paints polymers.

N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine ..... Medical uses.

N-Nitrosodiethanolamine ..... No commercial use.

N-Nitrosodiethylamine ..... Stabilizer in plastics, gasoline and lubricant additive.

N-Nitrosodimethylamine ..... Liquid rocket fuel, solvent.

p-Nitrosodiphenylamine ..... Rubber, dye.

N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine ..... No commercial use. Used in cancer research.

N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea ..... No commercial use.

N-Nitroso-N-methylurea ..... Medical uses

N-Nitrosomethylvinylamine ..... Research chemical.

N-Nitrosomorpholine ..... No commercial use.

N-Nitrosonornicotine ..... Research chemical.

N-Nitrosopiperidine ..... Epoxy resin.

N-Nitrosopyrrolidine ..... No commercial use.

N-Nitrososarcosine .... No commercial use

Norethisterone ..... Medical uses

4,4'-Oxydianiline ..... Production of polyimide and poly(ester)mide resins.

Oxymetholone ..... Medical uses.

Phenacetin ..... Medical uses.

PhenazopyridineHydrochloride .. .. Medical uses.

Phenoxybenzamine Hydrochloride ..... Medical uses.

Phenytoin ..... Medical uses.

Polybrominated Biphenyls ..... Flame retardant, plastics.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls .... Heat transfer and hydraulic fluids.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbones, 15 listings .... Coal tar, roofing, creosote, asphalt
  • Benza(a)anthracene
  • Benzo(b)fluoranthene
  • Benzo(j)fluoranthene
  • Benzo(k)fluoranthene
  • Benzo(a)pyrene
  • Dibenz(a,h)acridine
  • Dibenz(a,j)acridine
  • Dibenz(a,h)anthracene
  • 7H-Dibenzo(c,g)carbazole
  • Dibenzo(a,e)pyrene
  • Dibenzo(a,h)pyrene
  • Dibenzo(a,l)pyrene
  • Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
  • 5-Methylchrysene
Procarbazine Hydrochloride ..... Medical uses.

Progesterone ..... Medical uses.

1,3-Propane Sultone ..... Detergents lathering agents.

Propiolactone ..... Medical uses.

Propylene Oxide ..... Coatings and adhesives.

Propylthiouracil ..... Medical uses.

Reserpine ..... Medical uses.

Saccharin ..... Sweetening agent.

Safrole ..... Flavoring agent.

Selenium Sulfide ..... Shampoos.

Streptozotocin ..... Medical uses.

Sulfallate ..... Herbicide.

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) ..... Research chemical.

Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) ..... Dry cleaning and textile production.

Thioacetamide ..... Replacement for hydrogen sulfide in qualitative analysis.

Thiourea ..... Animal glue.

Toluene Diisocyanate ..... Polyurethane foam.

o-Toluidine and o-Toluidine Hydrochloride ..... Dyes and pigments.

Toxaphene ..... Insecticide.

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol ..... Wood preservative, anti mildew.

Tris(1-aziridinyl)phosphine Sulfide ..... Medical uses.

Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate ..... No longer used in the US. Was a flame retardant.



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List of IARC Group 3 carcinogens


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_IARC_Group_3_carcinogens

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42 Common Toxic Chemicals and Their Effects

http://www.mcsbeaconofhope.com/42_common_toxic_chemicals_and_th.htm


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Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

http://e.hormone.tulane.edu/learning/endocrine-disrupting-chemicals.html
http://e.hormone.tulane.edu/learning/human-effects.html


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Dogs And Cats Contaminated With High Levels Of Toxic Industrial Chemicals

In the first study of its kind, Environmental Working Group (EWG) found that companion cats and dogs are polluted with even higher levels of many of the same synthetic industrial chemicals that researchers have recently found in people.

http://www.care2.com/news/member/787093533/727657

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 Why is Toxic Propylene Glycol in Deodorants and Dog Food? -

http://sanfrancisco.legalexaminer.com/toxic-substances/why-is-toxic-propylene-glycol-in-deodorants-and-dog-food/

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Toxic chemicals in the home
and in the environment

http://leas.ca/userfiles/file/pdf/chem%20trespass%20teacher%20final.pdf

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The dirt on toxic chemicals in household cleaning products


http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/health/science/toxics/the-dirt-on-toxic-chemicals-in-household-cleaning-products/




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Be Aware of Artificial Turf Hazards - 

http://www.njwec.org/PDF/Factsheets/fact-artificialterf.pdf


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Should You Ditch Your Chemical Mattress? -

http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2008/03/should-you-ditch-your-chemical-mattress


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chemicals in Mattresses -

http://www.myessentia.com/research/glues-toxic-components

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Health Risks of the Serta Memory Foam -

 http://www.ehow.com/about_5806962_health-memory-foam-mattress-topper.html

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How To Buy A Non-Toxic Mattress (And An Inexpensive Alternative)


http://www.mommypotamus.com/how-to-buy-a-non-toxic-mattress/

Other organochlorine pesticides that have been found at sheep dips sites in New Zealand are lindane, DDT, aldrin and endrin. Long term exposure to organochlorine pesticides can affect the central nervous system and can cause liver damage in humans and animals.
Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and is very toxic to humans and animals” (Source:Sheep Dip Factsheet).

I haven’t yet been able to confirm this regarding antimony and phosphorous, but I
wouldn’t be surprised if excessive levels are really contaminants from industrial
practices.

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-



Dyes & petrochemicals


------------------

New fear about food dyes

 The research team, out of the Slovak University of Technology, studied two blue dyes, Patent Blue and Brilliant Blue. The former is banned from food products in the United States, but Brilliant Blue (also known as FD&C Blue No. 1) is used in food, textiles, leathers, and cosmetics in several countries including the U.S. 

 Hojerová and her colleagues have shown that the dyes can actually enter the bloodstream via the skin or through the digestive tract. That’s a major surprise, because it was believed that the skin blocked the dye from seeping into the body, and that ingested dyes were destroyed by the gastrointestinal system.

The team reached their conclusions by studying pig tongues coated with human saliva: Brilliant Blue and Patent Blue dye were placed on the tongues for 20 minutes, in an effort to mimic licking a lollipop. One day later, the team found that both dyes had actually been absorbed through the tongue and into the bloodstream, with Patent Blue penetrating to a greater extent.



http://www.prevention.com/health/healthy-living/blue-food-dyes-absorbed-bloodstream
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Food Dyes Linked to Behavioral Problems

Red 40 is used mainly in junk foods. Linked to hyperactivity. Banned in Denmark,
Belgium, France, Switzerland, and Sweden being phased out in the entire EU. Made of petroleum and 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid.

http://www.inspirationgreen.com/food-dyes-linked-to-behavior-problems.html

  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Food Dyes Linked to Cancer, ADHD, Allergies

http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2010/07/popular-food-dyes-linked-to-cancer-adhd-and-allergies/#.UmH8shDNkmx


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POSSIBLE CARCINOGENIC POTENTIAL OF VARIOUS MARKETED DYES


Water pollution due to effluents from textile dyeing industry is a cause of serious concern. The techniques for detection of dyes are cost intensive and futile because the dyes undergo chemical changes under environmental conditions and the transformation products may be
more toxic and carcinogenic than the parent molecule. Hence instead of detecting each chemical individually it is advisable to study the toxic effect of the effluents on various living organisms.
Various techniques of toxicity and carcinogenicity measurements are discussed in this review. Remediation using physical, chemical and biological methods has also been critically reviewed.
 http://www.ijpcbs.com/files/10-353.pdf

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http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/81-106/

Health Hazard Alert-- Benzidine-, o-Tolidine-, and o-Dianisidine- Based Dyes


 Recent data from animal tests, case reports, and other sources about the carcinogenic effects and metabolism of benzidine-, o-tolidine-, and o- dianisidine-based dyes have come to the attention of OSHA and NIOSH. Both agencies have reviewed the data and conclude that the findings establish the potential of these dyes to cause cancer in humans.

OSHA and NIOSH conclude that persons working with these dyes should be aware of the potential health hazards that could result from excessive exposure to them. The intent of this document is to summarize the information available of the carcinogenic effects and metabolism of benzidine-, o-tolidine-, and o- dianisidine-based dyes and to provide guidance so that employers, employees, and physicians may work together to reduce potential health hazards that could result from excessive exposure to these dyes.



Metabolism of Benzidine-Based Dyes to Benzidine Evidence exists to indicate that benzidine-based dyes are converted to the carcinogen benzidine in laboratory animals and in humans.  The NCI bioassay of C.I. Direct Blue 6, C.I. Direct Black 38, and C.I. Direct Brown 95 for carcinogenicity included analyses of urine samples for benzidine from treated animals.  Urine samples from Fischer 344 rats were collected over 24-hour periods during weeks 4 and 12. Benzidine was detected in the urine of rats given benzidine-based dyes but not in the urine of the untreated control rats. As the amount of the dye fed to the rats increased, so did the amount of benzidine excreted in the urine. Analyses of the dyes prior to mixing in feed demonstrated no residual or contaminating benzidine. The data indicate that the benzidine in the urine resulted from the bio-transformation of the dyes. Similar results were found by analyses of urine from B6C3F1 mice.

Rinde and Troll studied the metabolism of the benzidine-based dyes C.I. Direct Blue 6, C.I. Direct Black 38, C.lI. Direct Brown 95, and C.I. Direct Red 28 in Rhesus monkeys. Each monkey was gavaged with a single dose of one dye dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. Each of the dyes was administered in two different dose levels in separate experiments, except for C.I. Direct Red 28, which was given at only one level. Purified benzidine was administered at two levels in the same manner. Urine was collected over a 72-hour period from all the animals and pooled for assay. Urine collected from the monkeys before dosing was used to establish the control values. The authors found benzidine and a metabolite, monoacetyl benzidine, in the urine of the monkeys receiving the dyes. The control values were negative. They concluded that the dyes were converted to benzidine in vivo.  Korosteleva et al. found benzidine in the blood serum and tissues of rats fed Direct Red 13. This indicated that the dye had been converted to benzidine. Lynn et al. reported on the metabolism of the benzidine-based dyes C.I. Direct Blue 2, C.I. Direct Black 4, C.I. Direct Brown 2, C.I. Direct Orange 1. C.I. Direct Red 28, C.I. Direct Orange 8, and C.I. Direct Green 1 in female mongrel dogs and rats. Each of five mongrel dogs was administered a dye orally and urine was collected at 24 hour intervals for 3 days. No trace of benzidine was detected in the dogs' urine 3 days after exposure. Some dogs were used more than once with a minimum of 1 week between dye exposures. Benzidine was recovered in the urine of each treated dog following the oral administration of the 7 dyes. Although some residual benzidine in each of the dyes had been detected prior to administration according to the authors, the amount of benzidine recovered in the urine exceeded that administered as a contaminant by at least 9 times. These finding suggest the dye was converted to benzidine in the dog.



Dyes Derived from o- Tolidine Without Colour Index Generic Names -


Atanyl Red NJ (ATL)
Diphenyl Green BBN (CGY)
Pyrazol Dark Green 3B (S)

Direct Fast Brown BCW-NB (ATL)
Direct Fast Brown BP-NB Conc. (ATL)
Direct Brown GG-NB (ATL)
Direct Brown US-NB (ATL)

Milling Red G-NB (ATL)
Padazoic Yellow G Pdr. (ATL)
Padazoic Golden Yellow RLL Pdr. (ATL)

Padazoic Orange GR Pdr. (ATL)

Penetrating Black AM-NB (CKC)

Sandolan Red N-3B (S)
Code Letters of Manufacturers, Importers, and Distributors

Code Letters of Manufacturers, Importers, and Distributors

Code     Manufacturer
AC    American Color and Chemical Corporation
ACY    American Cyanamid Company
ALL    Alliance Chemical, Inc.
ATL    Atlantic Chemical Corporation
BAS    B.A.S.F. Wyandotte Corp.
BDO    Benzenoid Organics, Inc.
BUC    Blackman-Uhler, Chemical Division of Synalloy Corp.
CGY    Ciba-Geigy Corporation
CKC    Crompton and Knowles Corporation

DUP    E. I. DuPont De Nemours and Co., Inc.

FAB    Fabricolor Inc.
Fran    Francolor--subsidiary of Ugine Kuhlmann Co. (Importer/Distributor)
HSH    Harshaw Chemical Company
ICI    ICI United States
JC    John Campbell and Company (Importer/Distributor)
L&R    L&R International Dyestuffs Corp. (Importer/Distributor) [Formerly L&R Dyestuffs Corp.]
ORC    Organic Chemical Corporation (Importer/Distributor)
PCW    Pfister Chemical Ind.
PDC    Berncolors-Poughkeepsie, Inc.
S    Sandoz Colors and Chemicals
SSS    Sidney Springer Company (Importer/Distributor)
V    Verona Dyestuff Division, Mobay Chemical Corp.


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In the Ink: Do All Tattoo Pigments Use Mercury and Other Toxic Heavy Metals?

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=tattoo-ink-mercury-and-other-toxins

 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Tattoos, Red Ink, and Sensitivity Reactions -

 http://chemistry.about.com/b/2006/05/07/tattoos-red-ink-and-sensitivity-reactions.htm


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Is colored tattoo ink dangerous to your health?

 http://www.americanownews.com/story/16500057/colorful-tattoo-inks-could-be-dangerous-to-your-health

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Toxic Tattoo Ink Could Increase Risk Of Cancer, Experts Warn


 http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2013/09/23/toxic-tattoo-ink-cancer-risk_n_3974893.html

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Tattoo ink - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tattoo_ink


Manufacturers are not required to reveal their ingredients or conduct trials, and recipes may be proprietary. Professional inks may be made from iron oxides (rust), metal salts, plastics. Homemade or traditional tattoo inks may be made from pen ink, soot, dirt, blood, or other ingredients.



Heavy metals used for colors include mercury (red); lead (yellow, green, white); cadmium (red, orange, yellow); nickel (black); zinc (yellow, white); chromium (green); cobalt (blue); aluminium (green, violet); titanium (white); copper (blue, green); iron (brown, red, black); and barium (white). Metal oxides used include ferrocyanide and ferricyanide (yellow, red, green, blue). Organic chemicals used include azo-chemicals (orange, brown, yellow, green, violet) and naptha-derived chemicals (red). Carbon (soot or ash) is also used for black. Other compounds used as pigments include antimony, arsenic, beryllium, calcium, lithium, selenium, and sulphur.



Tattoo ink manufacturers typically blend the heavy metal pigments and/or use lightening agents (such as lead or titanium) to reduce production costs.
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Tattoo medical issues - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tattoo_medical_issues


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If you decide to get a tattoo, you should know the types of chemicals being injected into your body. Many people claim that tattoos can have medicinal properties. 
Ancient tattoos may have been used as medicine - http://io9.com/ancient-tattoos-may-have-been-used-as-medicine-1450392146   )

For thousands of years, people have been tattooing their body. Many tattoos used organic plant dyes. In some ancient cultures, people would use heavy metals, including lead, in some tattoos. Some people question if certain synthetic inks used in tattoo ink can be a carcinogen.  

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 For the past thousands of years, people have been using organic hair dyes. Only recently have people been using many synthetic chemicals for hair dyes, that may be linked to causing cancer.

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 Many hair dyes contain carcinogen, report finds -

http://www.seattlepi.com/national/article/Many-hair-dyes-contain-carcinogen-report-finds-1146660.php

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Carcinogenicity of hair dye components. -

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6993608

If you dye your hair, it might be good to use natural and organic dyes. People have
been using organic dyes for thousands of years.

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How toxic is Halloween face paint on your child’s face? -

http://www.berkeleyside.com/2011/10/28/toxicity-of-halloween-face-paint-concerns-some-parents/


The other thing that surprised me is how few Berkeleyans seem to know about this. Even Berkeley independent kids’ stores are selling these toxic brands, which include Alex Face Paint, which had the highest lead quantity of the ten face paints in the study.

Just this weekend my daughter was painted by “Snazaroo” face paint at a family fair down the street from our home. I assumed that the face paint used would be a safe brand given that it was a local Berkeley event, but when I got home I looked up Snazaroo. The CSC report said it contained lead, nickel and cobalt. Lead can lead to a low blood count (anemia). Small amounts of lead in the body can make it hard for children to learn, pay attention, and succeed in school.

    Higher amounts of lead exposure can damage the nervous system, kidneys, and other major organs. Very high exposure can lead to seizures or death.

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 Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Can be Cancer Risks -

http://www.preventcancer.com/consumers/cosmetics/cosmetics_personal_care.htm

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


The Price of Red Lips -

http://www.emagazine.com/blog/the-price-of-red-lips

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Safety Assessment of Nylon as Used in Cosmetics

http://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/nylon122012tent_faa_final%20for%
20posting.pdf

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The dangerous toxins in your shampoo -

http://www.examiner.com/article/the-dangerous-toxins-your-shampoo


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Toxic Shampoo: Read before Applying -

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/maria-rodale/toxic-shampoo-read-before_b_1932049.html



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Are You Using This Popular But Cancer-Causing Shampoo? -

http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2011/11/14/johnson-johnson-baby-products-toxic.aspx

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 Sunscreen Ingredient May Increase Skin Cancer Risk -

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/05/120507131951.htm

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The Campaign for Safe Cosmetics

 http://safecosmetics.org/article.php?id=222



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 12 Dangerous And Hidden Food Ingredients In Seemingly Healthy Foods -

http://saveourbones.com/12-dangerous-ingredients/

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The Shocking Truth About Freshly Squeezed Orange Juice


http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2011/08/16/dirty-little-secret-orange-juice-is-artificially-flavored-to-taste-like-oranges.aspx


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Plastic and Cancerous Compounds in Tea Bags—A Surprising Source of Potential Toxins


http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/04/24/tea-bags.aspx

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When a Blueberry Isn’t Even a Berry


 According to the video report, many popular products, which show pictures of fresh blueberries on the package, contain not a single drop of the actual fruit. Take Kellogg's Blueberry Muffin Frosted Mini-Wheats. They contain "Blueberry Flavored Crunchlets," made of "sugar, corn cereal, soybean oil, modified corn starch, water, natural and artificial flavor, glycerin, corn syrup, red #40 lake, and blue #2 lake."

 http://www.delish.com/food/recalls-reviews/fake-blueberries-in-cereal

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 What's in Fast Food Chicken? (Hint: It’s NOT Chicken) -


Frying chicken is fairly simple, if a little messy. You dip pieces of chicken into a mix of egg and milk, roll them around in flour and spices, then cook the chicken in sizzling hot oil until the pieces are brown, crispy and delicious.
But wait! Don’t forget to add a dash of dimethylpolysiloxane, an anti-foaming agent made of silicone that is also used in Silly Putty and cosmetics.
Now add a heaping spoonful of tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), which is a chemical preservative and a form of butane (AKA lighter fluid). One gram of TBHQ can cause “nausea, vomiting, ringing in the ears, delirium, a sense of suffocation, and collapse,” according to A Consumer’s Dictionary of Food Additives. Five grams of TBHQ can kill you. Sprinkle on thirteen other corn-derived ingredients, and you’re only about twenty shy as many ingredients as a single chicken nugget from McDonald’s. And you were using pulverized chicken skin and mechanically reclaimed meat for your chicken, right?




http://www.organicauthority.com/foodie-buzz/what-is-in-fast-food-chicken-hint-its-not-chicken.html

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 Dangerous food preservatives and additives -

http://www.anotherway.org/2011/08/dangerous-food-preservatives-and-additives/

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Subway sandwich chain to remove chemical found in yoga mats from bread

 February 6, 2014


Subway confirmed on Thursday that they were removing a chemical used to make yoga mats and rubber soles on shoes from their sandwich bread.
“We are already in the process of removing azodicarbonamide as part of our bread improvement efforts despite the fact that it is a USDA and FDA approved ingredient,” Subway told CBS News via e-mail. “The complete conversion to have this product out of the bread will be done soon.”

The fact that azodicarbonamide was used as an ingredient in U.S. and Canadian Subway products was brought to light by FoodBabe.com blogger Vani Hari. Hari claims the chemical can be found in 9-grain wheat, Italian white, honey oat, Italian herbs & cheese, parmesan/oregano, roasted garlic, sourdough and Monterrey cheddar breads.

She launched a petition asking the sandwich chain to remove azodicarbonamide from their menu items, pointing out that Australia and Europe have banned the chemical over health concerns. Subway does not use azodicarbonamide in their bread recipes in those countries.

 http://www.cbsnews.com/news/subway-sandwich-chain-to-remove-chemical-found-in-yoga-mats-from-bread/

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 Porofor® is the trademark name of the chemical Azodicarbonamide.

----------------------------------

 Azodicarbonamide

Chemical Name: Azodicarbonamide
Trademark: Porofor®

http://polymerchem.en.made-in-china.com/product-list-20.html



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 Lanxess industries is a manufacturer of Porofor®.


-------------

Porofor®

http://lanxess.in/en/industries-products-india/industries-india/polymers-and-plastics-india/porofor-adc-india/
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Lanxess


 Lanxess AG is a specialty chemicals group based in Germany, with headquarters and major operations in Cologne. It was founded in 2004 when Bayer AG spun off its chemicals operations and parts of its polymer activities. As measured by sales, Lanxess is the fourth-largest chemicals group in Germany. The company's principal product areas are in chemicals, rubber and plastics.

Lanxess traces its roots to 1863, the year in which Friedrich Bayer & Co. was founded as a manufacturer of synthetic dyestuffs. In 2004, Bayer, seeking to focus its business on healthcare and nutrition, spun off most of its chemicals business and roughly one-third of its polymers business into an independent subsidiary named Lanxess. Shares in Lanxess AG began to trade on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange on January 31, 2005, at which time each shareholder of Bayer was issued one share of stock in Lanxess.

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lanxess

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Azodicarbonamide

Azodicarbonamide, or azobisformamide, is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C2H4O2N4. It is a yellow to orange red, odorless, crystalline powder. As a food additive, it is known by the E number E927.

 Azodicarbonamide as a blowing agent in plastics has been banned in Europe since August 2005 for the manufacture of plastic articles that are intended to come into direct contact with food.

In the United States, azodicarbonamide has generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status and is allowed to be added to flour at levels up to 45 ppm.

In the UK, the Health and Safety Executive has identified azodicarbonamide as a respiratory sensitizer (a possible cause of asthma) and determined that products should be labeled with "May cause sensitisation by inhalation." The World Health Organization has linked azodicarbonamide to "respiratory issues, allergies and asthma" for individuals at workplaces where azodicarbonamide is manufactured. The available data are restricted to these occupational environments. Exposure of the general public to azodicarbonamide could not be evaluated because of the lack of available data.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azodicarbonamide

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How Food Companies Fool Consumers with Food Coloring Ingredients Made From Petrochemicals -  

http://www.organicconsumers.org/articles/article_11042.cfm

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Pesticides and Children’s Health
Pesticides and Children’s Health
Pesticides and Children’s Health

http://www.emagazine.com/earth-talk/pesticides-and-childrens-health

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Argentines Say Agrochemicals Causing Birth Defects, Cancer

Posted Oct 20, 2013

http://www.newser.com/story/176195/argentines-say-agrochemicals-causing-birth-defects-cancer.html?utm_source=part&utm_medium=inbox&utm_campaign=newser

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Global cancer rates could increase by 50% to 15 million by 2020

Cancer rates could further increase by 50% to 15 million new cases in the year 2020.

 http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2003/pr27/en/

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Worldwide cancer cases expected to soar by 70% over next 20 years

 February, 2014
New cancer cases expected to grow from 14m a year in 2012 to 25m, with biggest burden in low- and middle-income countries

 http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/feb/03/worldwide-cancer-cases-soar-next-20-years

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Half of Britons will get cancer during their life by 2020

   June, 2013


Half of all people in Britain will contract cancer at some point in their life by the 2020s but four in ten of them will survive, according to a new report by McMillan Cancer Support.



http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/10103449/Half-of-Britons-will-get-cancer-during-their-life-by-2020.html

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Environmental Toxins Cost Billions in Childhood Disease

http://healthland.time.com/2011/05/04/environmental-toxins-cost-billions-in-childhood-disease/


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How to Raise Chemical Free Kids -

http://www.thedailygreen.com/living-green/chemical-free-kids/non-toxic-hand-sanitizer-47081806

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Ageing population more at risk from environmental threats


http://theconversation.com/ageing-population-more-at-risk-from-environmental-threats-19574


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'New Nasty Nine' Toxic Chemicals Added to the 'Dirty Dozen'

The United Nations expands toxic chemical ban by 75%. Lindane (for head lice) and PFOS (widely used in industry) are now on the list.

Pentabromodiphenyl ether
Octabromodiphenyl ether
Chlordecone
Lindane
Alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane
Beta-hexachlorocyclohexane
PFOS
Hexabromobiphenyl
Pentachlorobenzene

http://www.thedailygreen.com/environmental-news/latest/toxic-chemicals-47101403

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PFOS: Perfluorooctane sulfonate and PFOA: Perfluorooctanoic acid Perfluorinated chemicals


 http://www.fluoridealert.org/wp-content/pesticides/pfos.pfoas-page.htm

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS)

Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), is a man-made fluorosurfactant and global pollutant. PFOS was the key ingredient in Scotchgard, a fabric protector made by 3M, and numerous stain repellents. It was added to Annex B of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in May 2009. PFOS can form from the degradation of precursors in addition to industrial production. The PFOS levels that have been detected in wildlife are considered high enough to affect health parameters, and recently higher serum levels of PFOS were found to be associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease in the general US population, consistent with earlier animal studies. "This association was independent of confounders such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, and serum cholesterol level."


Threat to people and wildlife

According to a study by the Environmental Directorate of the OECD "PFOS is persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic to mammalian species."


 Species                    Geography                                Year       Sample  PFOS (ppb)

Bald Eagle Midwestern USA 1990–93 plasma 2,200
Brandt's Cormorant California, USA 1997 liver 970
Guillemot Baltic Sea 1997 egg 614
Carrion Crow Tokyo Bay, Japan 2000 liver 464
Red-throated Loon North Carolina, USA 1998 liver 861
Polar Bear Sanikiluaq, Nunavut 2002 liver 3,100
Harbor Seal Dutch Wadden Sea, Denmark 2002 muscle 2,725
Bottlenose Dolphin Charleston, South Carolina, USA 2003 plasma 1,315
Common Dolphin Mediterranean Sea, Italy 1998 liver 940
Mink Michigan, USA 2000–01 liver 59,500


PFOS compounds can also be found in some impregnation agents for textiles, paper, and leather; in wax, polishes, paints, varnishes, and cleaning products for general use; in metal surfaces, and carpets.

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perfluorooctanesulfonic_acid

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-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Carnival Glass 101 


 If you look at the recipe that remains from E. A. Dugan's notebook (page 26 of the Dugan/Diamond book by Heacock, Measell & Wiggins), for a turquoise blue opal glass, you have 300 parts sand (silica), 81 parts soda (calcium carbonate), 50 parts lead (most likely lead oxide), 24 parts pearls (potassium phosphate), 54 parts feldspar (most likely potassium aluminum silicate), 50 parts fluorspar (calcium fluoride), 5 parts kryolite (sodium fluoraluminate),-actually used as a stomach insecticide as the crystals punch holes in insect gut cells!), 5 parts arsenic, and 7 oz. of copper scales (for the blue color). As you can tell from this formula, there's a lot more lead and fluoride than arsenic in the batch and the dust during the mixing of the batch would be quite dangerous. However, once fused in the melting process, none of these chemicals would be chemically active. If they were, all of our lead crystal glass would be highly dangerous to use! (That rumor goes around occasionally).

I hear all the time that cobalt (blue), selenium (pink to red) and uranium (yellow) compounds that are used as colorants in glass are highly toxic or are no longer available.

http://carnivalglass101.carnivalheaven.com/id136.ht



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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-

Chapter 4:

 Uranium

------


 General Electric (GE), DuPont & Monsanto


------

Feds: No uranium found at Pompton Lakes DuPont site

Federal officials are verifying that no uranium or radioactive materials were ever used at the former DuPont Factory.

Some residents questioned the use of uranium at the factory after the metal was detected in tests performed during the cleanup of contaminated areas.

An initial investigation performed by the Department of Energy revealed that the Pompton Lakes factory was never listed as a site that stored or processed uranium.

 http://www.northjersey.com/news/191158251_Feds__No_uranium_found_at_Pompton_Lakes_DuPont_site.html#sthash.ZI5HnloK.dpuf
Federal officials are verifying that no uranium or radioactive materials were ever used at the former DuPont Factory.
Some residents questioned the use of uranium at the factory after the metal was detected in tests performed during the cleanup of contaminated areas.
An initial investigation performed by the Department of Energy revealed that the Pompton Lakes factory was never listed as a site that stored or processed uranium.
- See more at: http://www.northjersey.com/news/191158251_Feds__No_uranium_found_at_Pompton_Lakes_DuPont_site.html#sthash.ZI5HnloK.dpuf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Not walking the talk:
DuPont's Untold Safety Failures



Secret is Out: 

40 Years Later Downwinders have Cancer
During the Cold War era, DuPont operated a nuclear plant in central Washington. Forty years later, workers and local residents learned they had been exposed to radioactive emissions.

Children who had resided downwind from the plant have recently been awarded damages because they developed thyroid cancer as adults. The Hanford facility, which DuPont helped build and operated from 1942 to 1946, converted
uranium into plutonium for the core of nuclear bombs, such as the bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan. Little was known about the Hanford site or its radioactive emissions until the Department of Energy released thousands of documents in 1986. This was the first time the public learned that radioactivity had been secretly released into the air and water. Included in the releases was radioactive iodine, I-131, which is linked to increased risks of thyroid disease and thyroid cancer.


Some 14,000 downwinders—people who were born and raised under the prevailing winds that carried clouds of radiation—are believed to be at risk.

Thousands of downwinders have filed multiple suits against DuPont. Each case has included different claimants with leukemia or thyroid, stomach and colon cancer. Several cases have been dismissed. Some residents have received jury awards, like Mr. Stanton, a 60-year old with thyroid cancer. He summarized the
issue in a Seattle Times article when he said, "...I think the principle of the thing
is probably more important: that government and big business need to be more careful what they put out in the atmosphere that could hurt people.”



 http://assets.usw.org/resources/hse/resources/Walking-the-Talk-Duponts-Untold-Safety-Failures.pdf

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Residents Shocked About Uranium Facility – Demand Closure


Residents shocked by uranium facility that has been hiding in plain sight
For almost half a century residents of a west-end community in Toronto have lived side-by-side with a uranium processing facility, without ever noticing it. But the years of blissful ignorance have seemingly come to an end and this ‘new’ knowledge of the plant has left many in the community afraid and pushing for change.
In a nondescript, four-floor building on Lansdowne Avenue, just north of Dupont Street, a G.E. Hitachi Canada facility has been turning uranium – found in small amounts in rocks, soil, water and plants – into pellets, to be used in the production of nuclear fuel, for decades. (Uranium, in its natural form, emits low-levels of radiation.)

http://depletedcranium.com/residents-shocked-about-uranium-facility-demand-closure/

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------



GE-Hitachi subsidiary Global Laser Enrichment (GLE) has formalised a proposal to set up a laser uranium enrichment plant using SILEX technology at the US Department of Energy (DoE)'s Paducah enrichment site in Kentucky.


 http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/ENF-Proposal_for_Paducah_laser_enrichment_plant-2602137.html


 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Mound Laboratories

  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mound_Laboratories


Mound Laboratories in Miamisburg, Ohio was an Atomic Energy Commission (later Department of Energy) facility for Nuclear weapon research during the Cold War.

The laboratory grew out of the World War II era Dayton Project (a site within the Manhattan Project) where the neutron generating triggers for the first plutonium bombs were developed.

Post-war construction of a permanent site for Dayton Project activities began in 1947. The lab was originally known as the Dayton Engineer Works. The lab began operations in 1948 and was managed by Monsanto. Mound produced detonators, cable assemblies, timers, firing sets, and other equipment.



 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mound_Laboratories


 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


U.N. LINKS DU PONT TO IRAQ ARMS PLAN -  

http://www.nytimes.com/1991/12/11/world/un-links-du-pont-to-iraq-arms-plan.html

The big American chemical producer, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, and the Pennsylvania subsidiary of a German engineering company are among companies whose products were used in Iraq's covert nuclear weapons program, United Nations inspectors who have examined the equipment say.

A list of some 13 companies, most of them German, is being prepared by the
International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations body charged with tracking down and destroying the secret Iraqi program. It will be sent to Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar later this week along with the report of the eighth and most recent nuclear inspection team to visit Iraq.

The agency does not accuse the companies on its list of deliberately and knowingly helping Iraq in its bid to become a nuclear power or even of supplying their products directly. Most Goods Very Specialized But experts say that much of the equipment is highly specialized and would have required government licenses before it could be exported legally. As a result, agency officials say they believe the manufacturers must at least have suspected what it might be used for.

"The list shows Saddam Hussein was able to import highly sensitive machinery, which means we should look at our export control laws again," said Garry Milhollin, director of the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control in Washington. "The United Nations should stop protecting companies and tell the world exactly what it knows about foreign involvement in Iraq's nuclear weapons project."

While the list of involved companies is still being prepared by experts in Vienna, the Du Pont company is currently the only fully American company on it, officials say. The giant chemical producer is listed as having manufactured vacuum pump oil found at an unnamed Iraqi nuclear installation.

Experts say this is a special low density oil that would have been used in the vacuum pumps employed in Iraq's attempt to make nuclear explosives by the centrifuge enrichment method.

Clint Archer, a spokesman for Du Pont at the corporation's headquarters in Wilmington, Del., said the oil was probably manufactured at the company's Conoco petroleum refining subsidiary in Houston, but he said he could provide no further details. Subject to Destruction United Nations officials say many companies on the list manufactured equipment that was used in Iraq's bid to enrich uranium up to weapons grade levels by the centrifuge method. This equipment is all liable for destruction under the terms of the Security Council's terms for the Persian Gulf war cease-fire, unless Iraq can show it has a justified civilian use for it.



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Du Pont Says U.S. Cleared Export Of Item Used in Iraqi Bomb Effort

http://www.nytimes.com/1991/12/12/world/du-pont-says-us-cleared-export-of-item-used-in-iraqi-bomb-effort.html


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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-

Chapter 5:

DecaBDE

-

DecaBDE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decabromodiphenyl_ether

Commercial decaBDE is a technical mixture of different PBDE congeners, with PBDE congener number 209 (decabromodiphenyl ether) and nonabromodiphenyl ether being the most common. The term decaBDE alone refers to only decabromodiphenyl ether, the single "fully brominated" PBDE.

DecaBDE is a flame retardant. The chemical "is always used in conjunction with antimony trioxide" in polymers, mainly in "high impact polystyrene (HIPS) which is used in the television industry for cabinet backs." DecaBDE is also used for "polypropylene drapery and upholstery fabric" by means of backcoating and "may also be used in some synthetic carpets."

The annual demand worldwide was estimated as 56,100 tonnes in 2001, of which the Americas accounted for 24,500 tonnes, Asia 23,000 tonnes, and Europe 7,600 tonnes. The industrial consumption in Europe was stable at approximately 8,000 tonnes annually between the beginning of the 1990s and 2004. As of 2007, Albemarle in the U.S., Chemtura in the U.S., ICL-IP in Israel, and Tosoh Corporation in Japan are the main manufacturers of decaBDE.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 (Chemtura chemical is one of the manufacturers of Decabromodiphenyl ether Decabromodiphenyl ether (also known as decaBDE, deca-BDE, DBDE ) .


 http://www2.dupont.com/FE/en_US/news_events/archives/article20080201.html#.UhFRdm2wU98


-

DuPont today announced that it has completed its purchase of Chemtura Corporation's fluorine chemicals business.

http://www.acr-news.com/news/news.asp?id=542&title=DuPont+acquires+Chemtura+Fluorine+chemicals+business

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Occupational exposure to commercial decabromodiphenyl ether in workers manufacturing or handling flame-retarded rubber.     -

  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15871227

Commercial decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) is commonly used as a flame retardant in different electrical and textile applications. It is also used in the production of flame-retarded rubber compound. DecaBDE is the major technical polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) in use today and consists mainly of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). PBDEs, including BDE-209, are well-known environmental pollutants, ubiquitous both in aquatic and terrestrial environments. The aim of the present study was to assess the exposure to PBDEs in workers manufacturing or handling rubber which was flame retarded with DecaBDE.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Developmental exposure to decabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 209):
Effects on thyroid hormone and hepatic enzyme activity in
male mouse offspring    -   http://ntur.lib.ntu.edu.tw/bitstream/246246/173649/1/14.pdf


------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Plastic pallet company defiant in face of DecaBDE phase-out pact

http://www.foodproductiondaily.com/Safety-Regulation/Plastic-pallet-company-defiant-in-face-of-DecaBDE-phase-out-pact



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decabromodiphenyl_ether


Pharmacokinetics


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


-

Chapter 6:

Dibasic ester (DBE)

-



Dibasic ester (DBE)






Dibasic esters are used in paints, paint strippers, coatings, plasticisers, resins, binders, solvents, polyols, soil stabilization, chemical grouting, oilfield drilling
fluids, crop protection products, and adhesives.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dibasic_esters

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


DBE Supplier: DuPont


http://www.specialchem4coatings.com/tds/dbe/dupont/3903/index.aspx


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


DBE studies

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=Link&db=pubmed&dbFrom=PubMed&from_uid=1673384



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


  http://books.google.com/books?id=Bltrk9DOgvwC&pg=PA293&lpg=PA293&dq=dibasic+ester+plasticizers+toxins&source=bl&ots=OirhY_1RIr&sig=pkE2QApZ83EzDg2jpmOBRdVn7zg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=1d77UqKSOarW2AXB2oGwBg&ved=0CEIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=dibasic%20ester%20plasticizers%20toxins&f=false

Dangerous Properties of Industrial and Consumer Chemicals

 Page 289

Chemical name: DIMETHYL ADIPATE (DMA)

 DIMETHYL ADIPATE, A DIBASIC ESTER, PRIMARILY USED AS A PLASTICIZER FOR CELLULOSE TYPE RESINS, IS SLIGHTLY TOXIC TO RATS AND CYTOTOXIC TO HELA CELLS. A POTENTIAL ANIMAL TERATOGEN.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



 DuPont (UK) Ltd. is a supplier of Dimethyl adipate

http://www.buyersguidechem.com/AprodList.php?fnumm=05881220&name1=DuPont%20%28UK%29%20Ltd.&pnumm=860008372285&pname=Dimethyl%20adipate&casnum=627-93-0


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
A microscopic and ultrastructural evaluation of dibasic esters (DBE) toxicity in rat nasal explants.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1639180




------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

90-day Inhalation Toxicity Study with Dibasic Ester (dbe)

http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?abbr=OTS00004331


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Degeneration and Recovery of Rat Olfactory Epithelium following Inhalation of Dibasic Esters


http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/15/2/381.abstract





------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-

 Chapter 7:

 Diphenyl ether

-

Diphenyl ether

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diphenyl_ether

The main application of diphenyl ether is as a eutectic mixture with biphenyl, used as a heat transfer medium. Such a mixture is well-suited for heat transfer applications because of the relatively large temperature range of its liquid state.
Diphenyl ether is a starting material in the production of phenoxathiin via the Ferrario reaction. Phenoxathiin is used in polyamide and polyimide production.
Because of its odor reminiscent of scented geranium, as well as its stability and low price, diphenyl ether is used widely in soap perfumes. Diphenyl ether is also used as a processing aid in the production of polyesters.
Several polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are useful flame retardants. Of penta-, octa-, and decaBDE, the three most common PBDEs, only decaBDE is still in widespread use since its ban in the European Union in 2003. DecaBDE, also known as decabromodiphenyl oxide, is a high-volume industrial chemical with over 450,000 kilograms produced annually in the United States. Decabromodiphenyl oxide is sold under the trade name Saytex 102 as a flame retardant in the manufacture of paints and reinforced plastics.


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Exposure of Electronics Dismantling Workers to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticides in South China

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es070346a


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Elevated Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Associated with Lymphocytic Micronuclei in Chinese Workers from an E-Waste Dismantling

Site - http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es702295f


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Spatial Distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Soil and Combusted Residue at Guiyu, an Electronic Waste Recycling Site in Southeast China    -

   http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es0625935

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Is House Dust the Missing Exposure Pathway for PBDEs? An Analysis of the Urban Fate and Human Exposure to PBDEs -

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es048267b

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Human Exposure to PBDEs:? Associations of PBDE Body Burdens with Food Consumption and House Dust Concentrations -

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es0620282

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Research Evidence of Debromination of Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) in Biota from a Wastewater Receiving Stream   -

  http://www.sourcewatch.org/images/6/6c/Hale_2007.pdf


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-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-

Chapter 8:

PVC

-


PVC

-


PVC: TOXIC WASTE IN DISGUISE  -

http://pvcinformation.org/assets/pdf/PVCFactPack.pdf

It is used for consumer articles such as credit cards, records,
and toys; in construction, for window frames, doors, walls,
panelling, pipes and gutters; around the home in flooring,
wallpaper, Venetian blinds, and shower curtains; in the office
for furniture, binders, folders, pens...; it is used in the
automotive industry, especially as underseal; in hospitals for
medical disposables; as cable and wire insulation; for imitation
leather; for garden furniture

http://www.pvc.org/en/p/pvc-in-consumer-goods

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Air Pollution from PVC Plastics Plants Challenged


Washington DC — 
The Environmental Protection Agency is failing to protect communities and the public from toxic air pollution emitted by plants that produce polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and related plastics, environmental groups argued today.
The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit heard oral arguments in a case (Docket # 02-1282) challenging EPA's inadequate regulations for controlling toxic air emissions from PVC plastics manufacturing plants. Earthjustice is representing the Sierra Club and Mossville Environmental Action Now (MEAN) in the case.


http://earthjustice.org/news/press/2003/air-pollution-from-pvc-plastics-plants-challenged
 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 This is a list of PVC patents from DuPont, Dow Chemical & Bayer.

http://www.google.com/patents/US3006889

Vinyl chloride

Cited Patent   US4556694    Jul 26, 1984    Dec 3, 1985    E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company    Low temperature flexible PVC blends

Cited Patent US4727114    May 26, 1987    Feb 23, 1988    E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Company    Chlorosulfonated polyethylene blends

Cited Patent US6706815    Jul 31, 2002    Mar 16, 2004    DuPont Dow Elastomers L.L.C.    Impact resistant rigid PVC compositions using hydrocarbon rubbers and chlorinated polyethylene as impact modifiers

Cited Patent US6849694    Jan 15, 2003    Feb 1, 2005    DuPont Dow Elastomers, LLC    Impact modifier compositions for rigid PVC compositions of hydrocarbon rubbers and chlorinated polyethylene

Cited Patent US6875820    Apr 18, 2001    Apr 5, 2005    DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC    Chlorinated polyolefin impact modifier for vinyl chloride polymers

Cited Patent US7560515    Mar 30, 2006    Jul 14, 2009    Bayer MaterialScience LLC    PVC alloy for use in air bag doors


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PVC Items In Your Every-Day Life

 

Household:
Cling Wrap
Shower Curtains
Bath Mats
Tablecloths
Place Mat
Credit Cards
Pond Liners
Wall Coverings including wall paper, wall decals for nursery or kid’s rooms
Fake Christmas Trees
Strollers and Car Seats
Toys
Water beds
Labels and Stickers
Photo Album Sheets
Mattress Covers
Imitation Leather Furniture
Checkbook Covers
Cleaning product containers
Pet care product containers
Tarps
Modeling Clay (Child Toy)


Apparel:
Bibs
Aprons
Shoes / Boots
Bags / Luggage / Diaper Bags / Backpacks with rain protective coating
Rain Gear: boots, jackets, pants, gloves, hats
T-shirts with shiny PVC prints
Watchbands


Outdoor Items:
Balls
Children’s Swimming Pools
Garden Hoses
Greenhouses
Inflatable Furniture
Pond Liners
Greenhouse and Cold Frames
Tarps


Kitchen Items:
Drinking Straws
Dish Racks
Food Wrap
Plastic Bags
Food Storage Containers

Office Supplies:
Sheet Protectors
Photo Albums
Notebooks
Report Covers
Binders
Cell Phones
Clipboards
Computer Keyboards
Floppy Disks
Mouse Pads
Paper Clips
Tape

Building Materials:
Fencing
Flooring
Gutters
Pipes
Molding
Shutters
Siding
Tiles
Window Frames
Wire / cable insulation
Appliance housing TV, Video, Stereo, Circuit Cards, White Goods
For more information on PVC read: PVC Plastic ~ The Poison Plastic In Your Home

http://mommyfootprint.com/pvc-items-in-your-every-day-life/



---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-

Chapter 9: 

BPA and BPAF

-

BPA and Bisphenol AF



Determination of bisphenol AF (BPAF) in tissues, serum, urine and feces of orally dosed rats by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. -

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22749589
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is a fluorinated organic compound related to bisphenol A in which the two methyl groups are replaced with trifluoromethyl groups.
Whereas BPA binds with human estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERR-γ), BPAF all but ignores ERR-γ. Instead, BPAF activates ERR-α and binds to and disables ERR-β.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bisphenol_AF

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



http://msds.dupont.com/msds/pdfs/EN/PEN_09004a2f80007748.pdf

 DuPont Page 1

Material Safety Data Sheet

BPAF



 0512PP Revised 2-DEC-2011

CHEMICAL PRODUCT/COMPANY IDENTIFICATION

Tradenames and Synonyms
Bisphenol AF
4,4’Bisphenol AF
Bis AF
BPAF Tech.
4,4’Hexafluoroisopropylidene Diphenol
BPAF PG
BPAF Polymer Grade
BPAF LM


Company Identification

MANUFACTURER/DISTRIBUTOR

DuPont
1007 Market Street
Wilmington, DE 19898
PHONE NUMBERS
Product Information : 1-800-441-7515 (outside the U.S.
302-774-1000)


 COMPOSITION/INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS

Components
Material CAS Number %
4,4’-Bisphenol AF 1478-61-1 97.0-100.0
Monoadducts (O, P) 0-1.4
Hydrofluoric Acid 7664-39-3 0-0.2
Phenol 108-95-2 0-0.2
2,4’-Bisphenol AF 0-0.6



 HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

Potential Health Effects
Skin contact may cause skin irritation with discomfort or
rash. Eye contact may cause eye irritation with discomfort,
tearing, or blurring of vision.


Inhalation may cause irritation of the upper respiratory
passages, with coughing and discomfort.

Carcinogenicity Information

None of the components present in this material at concentrations
equal to or greater than 0.1% are listed by IARC, NTP, OSHA or ACGIH
as a carcinogen.


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23151244

Distribution and preliminary exposure assessment of bisphenol AF (BPAF) in various environmental matrices around a manufacturing plant in China.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Bioactivation of bisphenol A and its analogs (BPF, BPAF, BPZ and DMBPA) in human liver microsomes. -

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23470418


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Bisphenol AF may cause testosterone reduction by directly affecting testis function in adult male rats. -

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22504055


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Neurotoxic effects of bisphenol AF on calcium-induced ROS and MAPKs. -

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22996013




------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-

Chapter 10:

Bisphenol S (BPS)

-



Bisphenol S (BPS)

-

Bisphenol-S Added to BPA-Free Products by Greedy Corporations - 

http://naturalsociety.com/toxic-bisphenol-s-to-bpa-free-products/



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bisphenol_S


Bisphenol S (BPS) is an organic compound with the formula (C6H4OH)2SO2. It has two phenol functional groups on either side of a sulfonyl group. It is commonly used as a reactant in epoxy reactions, and is used in curing fast-drying epoxy resin glues Bisphenol S is prepared by the reaction of two equivalents of phenol with one equivalent of sulfuric acid.


(  As we know, DuPont is a major producer of sulfuric acid. )

--

Sulfuric Acid


http://www2.dupont.com/Sulfur_Technologies/en_US/products/sulfur_technologies/sulfuric_acid.html


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Bisphenol S Disrupts Estradiol-Induced Nongenomic Signaling in a Rat Pituitary Cell Line: Effects on Cell Functions   -  

http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1205826/


Results: 

BPS phosphoactivated ERK within 2.5 min in a nonmonotonic dose-dependent manner (10–15 to 10–7 M). When combined with 10–9 M E2, the physiologic estrogen’s ERK response was attenuated. BPS could not activate JNK, but it greatly enhanced E2-induced JNK activity. BPS induced cell proliferation at low concentrations (femtomolar to nanomolar), similar to E2. Combinations of both estrogens reduced cell numbers below those of the vehicle control and also activated caspases. Earlier activation of caspase 8 versus caspase 9 demonstrated that BPS initiates apoptosis via the extrinsic pathway,
consistent with activation via a membrane receptor. BPS also inhibited rapid (= 1 min) E2-induced PRL release.

Conclusion: 

BPS, once considered a safe substitute for BPA, disrupts membrane-initiated E2-induced cell signaling, leading to altered cell proliferation, cell death, and PRL release.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


BPA report conclusions "concerning", says PlasticsEurope.

http://www.foodproductiondaily.com/Markets/BPA-report-conclusions-concerning-says-PlasticsEurope

  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 Canned Food Seals in BPA -

http://news.discovery.com/human/canned-food-bpa.htm

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

BPA IN THE KITCHEN


Groups that fight against regulation of BPA conduct their own studies.  One such group, the American Chemistry Council, is made up of companies including Dupont, Exxon Mobil, and Dow Chemical.  It states on its website that there are no negative health effects from BPA.  It also says that BPA in the body is eliminated within 24 hours. The Council lobbies Washington for less regulation of chemicals and pollutants.

http://tgryes.org/2011/04/18/bpa-in-the-kitchen/

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


BPA Chemical Leaches From Hard Plastic Drinking Bottles Into The Body, Study 

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/151156.php


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Bisphenol A exposure linked to brain tumor diagnosis. -

http://www.environmentalhealthnews.org/ehs/newscience/2012/05/2012-0605-bpa-brain-cancer-meningioma


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

F.D.A. Makes It Official: BPA Can’t Be Used in Baby Bottles and Cups -

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/18/science/fda-bans-bpa-from-baby-bottles-and-sippy-cups.html?_r=0

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

http://www.naturalnews.com/BPA.html*

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Even BPA-Free Plastic Not Always Safe -

 http://news.discovery.com/human/bpa-plastic-food-hormones-chemicals-110715.html


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Be Wise With Plastics -

http://healthychild.org/5steps/5_steps_5/


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Is Growing Food in a Plastic Container Safe? -

http://www.urbanorganicgardener.com/2010/08/is-growing-food-in-a-plastic-container-safe/

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 WHAT ARE THE DANGERS OF USING PLASTIC ICE TRAYS?

Leaching

The important anxiety with impressible cover block trays is the supply of leaching. Plastic trays are prefabricated from chemicals, and if those plasticizers withdraw into the cover block as the liquid freezes, the mortal who puts the cover block in his drinkable module have the chemicals. Bisphenol A—or BPA—is digit of the chemicals utilised in impressible manufacturing that, according to the National Institute of Environmental Health Services, is of anxiety if ingested.

 http://www.need-health.com/family-health/content-573.html

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
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-

Chapter: 11

Plastics & environmental damage


-----------


OCEAN PLASTICS POLLUTION:
A Global Tragedy for Our Oceans and Sea Life -

http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/campaigns/ocean_plastics/

As plastics break apart in the ocean, they also release potentially toxic chemicals
such as bisphenol A (BPA), which can then enter the food web. When fish and other marine species mistake the plastic items for food, they ingest the particles and pass toxic chemicals through the food chain and ultimately to our dinner plates.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Scientists uncover new ocean threat from plastics

 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/scientists-uncover-new-ocean-threat-from-plastics-1774337.html

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 Plastics Suck Up Other Toxins: Double Whammy for Marine Life, Gross for Seafood -

http://www.motherjones.com/blue-marble/2013/01/plastics-and-chemicals-they-absorb-pose-double-threat-marine-life


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
Toxic Debris Delivers Triple Whammy

Toxic Debris Delivers Triple Whammy

Toxic Debris Delivers Triple Whammy

http://www.emagazine.com/blog/toxic-debris-delivers-triple-whammy1

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Assessing the factors responsible for ionic liquid toxicity to
aquatic organisms via quantitative structure–property
relationship modeling

http://rjbernot.iweb.bsu.edu/CoulingetalGreenChem06.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Monofilament fishing line

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monofilament_fishing_line


History

DuPont made public in 1938 that their company had invented nylon. This new invention was the first synthetic fiber, fabrics that are commonly used in textiles today. In 1939, DuPont began marketing nylon monofilament fishing lines; however, braided Dacron lines remained the most used and popular fishing line for the next two decades.

Environmental impact

Discarded monofilament lines can present serious environmental problems. These lines are extremely difficult to spot when submerged in water, and fish, birds, and other marine life can easily become entangled, causing starvation, amputation, and death.

Ingestion is also a serious threat to wildlife. Monofilament lines also present a risk to swimmers and scuba divers. The breakdown of lines, especially in strimmers, leads to microplastics which may cause starvation or poisoning of organisms in soil or water.

For these reasons, programs have been started to recycle fishing line, to keep it out
of the environment. Specialized containers have been designed to collect fishing line for recycling.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Dupont is a major manufacturer of Dacron.

http://www2.dupont.com/Phoenix_Heritage/en_US/1950_detail.html

Sailcloth is typically made from PET fibers also known as polyester or under the brand name Dacron; colorful lightweight spinnakers are usually made of nylon.


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Monofilament Recycling Station Program

 http://wetlandsinstitute.org/conservation/monofilament-recycling-station-program/

Unfortunately, either by accident or through neglect, some of this monofilament line can make its way into our waterways. In fact, this fishing line is one of the ocean’s most persistent forms of pollution as, for example, 10,000 feet of fishing line was collected from Hartford Pier, Southern California alone in 2007.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microplastics

Microplastics


Microplastics which are produced either for direct use, such as for industrial
abrasives, exfoliants, cosmetics or rotomilling or for indirect use as precursors (so called resin pellets or nurdles) for the production of manifold consumer products ("primary microplastics"). At current levels, microplastics are unlikely to be an important global geochemical reservoir for POPs such as PCBs, dioxins, and DDT in open oceans. It is not clear, however, if microplastics play a larger role as chemical reservoirs on smaller scales.

A reservoir function is conceivable in densely populated and polluted areas, such as bights of mega-cities, areas of intensive agriculture and effluents flumes.
Oil based polymers ('plastics') are virtually non-biodegradable. However, renewable natural polymers are now in development which can be used for the production of biodegradable materials similar to that of oil-based polymers. Their properties in the environment, however, require detailed scrutiny before their wide use is propagated.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Why is Dupont so interested in polycarbonates?


http://www.frost.com/sublib/display-market-insight.do?id=JEVS-5N2GPX

At present, the three largest polycarbonate suppliers (in this order in Europe) are

Bayer, GE Plastics, and Dow. In fact, the material was first discovered independently in the 1950’s by Bayer and General Electric.
This announcement by Dupont is likely to fuel optimism in the polycarbonates market, which has been blamed for the current low demand for bisphenol-A. A sluggish polycarbonates market has even been cited over problems further upstream, apparently causing overcapacity problems in acetone and phenol, the two key raw materials for bisphenol-A production.


Dupont’s current portfolio of engineering plastics is based on polyesters, polyamides and a range of high-performance materials such as acetal resins and polyimides.

Polycarbonates are aimed at similar markets to many polyamides and PBT in particular, so the acquisition of polycarbonate production would fill a gap in their portfolio. Indeed, PC/PET and PC/PET blends are common in automotive bumpers and panels, mobile phones and other business equipment housings.

One use of Makrolon polycarbonates is in sports eyewear.


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

There's many alternatives to plastic sunglasses made from Makrolon. Alternatives such as bamboo, wood, metal or bioplastic, would be more environmentally friendly, than the current amount of sunglasses made from fossil fuel and other petrochemicals.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-

Chapter: 12

Financial

-


Financial

------


Discovery and development of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors


The impetus for development of selective COX-2 inhibitors was the adverse gastrointestinal side-effects of NSAIDs. Soon after the discovery of the mechanism of action of NSAIDs, strong indications emerged for alternative forms of COX, but little supporting evidence was found. COX enzyme proved to be difficult to purify and was not sequenced until 1988.


But in 1991 the COX-2 enzyme was cloned and its existence, therefore, confirmed. Before the confirmed existence of COX-2, the Dupont company had developed a compound, DuP-697, that was potent in many anti-inflammatory assays but did not have the ulcerogenic effects of NSAIDs. Once the COX-2 enzyme was identified Dup-697 became the building-block for synthesis of COX-2 inhibitors. Celecoxib and rofecoxib, the first COX-2 inhibitors to reach market, were based on DuP-697. It took less than eight years to develop and market the first COX-2 inhibitor, with Celebrex (celecoxib) launched in December 1998 and Vioxx (rofecoxib) launched in May 1999.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discovery_and_development_of_cyclooxygenase_2_inhibitors

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Merck settles Vioxx lawsuits for $4.85 billion

 But drug firm maintains it was not at fault over arthritis drug.


Three years after it pulled its blockbuster painkiller Vioxx from the market, Merck has agreed to pay $4.85 billion to settle nearly 27,000 lawsuits that claim the arthritis drug caused heart attacks and strokes.

http://www.nature.com/news/2007/071113/full/450324b.html


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Pfizer fails to end lawsuit over Bextra, Celebrex safety


 Published: Mar 28, 2013

Pfizer Inc has failed to persuade a federal judge to dismiss a shareholder lawsuit accusing the company of fraudulently misrepresenting the safety of its Celebrex and Bextra pain-relieving drugs.


While dismissing some of the claims, U.S. District Judge Laura Taylor Swain in Manhattan said a reasonable jury could find that Pfizer and several top executives intended to mislead shareholders about the drugs' cardiovascular risks.

"The record is replete with evidence that defendants recognized that Celebrex and Bextra had associated cardiovascular risks, that such risks would be considered material by investors, and that defendants nonetheless misrepresented and actively concealed these risks," she wrote.



http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/03/28/us-pfizer-lawsuit-idUSBRE92R13120130328

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


"Fire in the Blood": Millions Die in Africa After Big Pharma Blocks Imports of Generic AIDS Drugs


 The new documentary, Fire in the Blood, explores how major pharmaceutical companies, including Pfizer and GlaxoSmithKline, as well as the United States, prevented tens of millions of people in the developing world from receiving affordable generic AIDS drugs. Millions died as a result. This is a part of the trailer of Fire in the Blood.


http://truth-out.org/news/item/14117-fire-in-the-blood-millions-die-in-africa-after-big-pharma-blocks-imports-of-generic-aids-drugs


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


DuPont Weighs the Sale of a Chemicals Unit, After Profit Slides 
Nearly 12 Percent.

By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
Published: July 23, 2013

 http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/24/business/dupont-weighs-sale-of-chemicals-unit-as-earnings-slide.html?_r=0

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


DuPont profit hurt by weather

 

The long, soggy winter in the U.S. and Europe is taking a toll on the agriculture industry. DuPont (DD) said sales for its nutrition supplements for pig and chicken feed, as well as for its animal disease control products, fell. It warned 1st-half operating profit will be 10% lower than last year, and full-year profit will miss its prior guidance of $3.85-$4.05 per share.

 http://news.investors.com/061313-659956-dupont-profit-hurt-by-weather.htm

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

New Strategies From DuPont And From Eastman Chemical


http://www.nytimes.com/2002/02/12/business/new-strategies-from-dupont-and-from-eastman-chemical.html

------------------------------------------------------------------------------


DuPont Co. tries to stop farmers from keeping seed of modified soybeans  -

http://www.cleveland.com/business/index.ssf/2012/12/dupont_co_tries_to_stop_farmer.html

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 DuPont Electronic Technologies Announces Global Price Increase

 

DuPont Electronic Technologies today announced a global price increase of up to 20 percent, effective June 16. DuPont Electronic Technologies cites rising raw material, transportation and energy costs among its reasons for the increase.

http://www.electronicsproductionworld.com/articleView.aspx?idArticle=71911_2972159202462008


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DuPont’s Just Not that into You


DuPont has dumped BASF, Dow Chemical, and PPG Industries from its peer group, according to its 2008 10-K report filed yesterday (just two days before Valentine’s Day in the U.S.). DuPont’s self-selected peer group, according to the report, has been revamped to include “more research-intensive companies with a scientific focus, versus commodity-based chemical companies.” Ouch!


http://www.chemweek.com/chem_ideas/Rob-Westervelt/DuPonts-Just-Not-that-into-You_17054.html

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Eastman, Dow, DuPont: Betting on a Global Recovery with Chemicals


http://www.insidermonkey.com/blog/eastman-dow-dupont-betting-on-a-global-recovery-with-chemicals-26700/



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Monsanto, DuPont Spend Millions to Defeat California Genetically Engineered Food Labeling Initiative    -    http://truth-out.org/news/item/11014-monsanto-dupont-spend-millions-to-defeat-california-genetically-engineered-food-labeling-initiative

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Monsanto, Dupont Spend $8.2M to Buy Washington Election


Sure enough, they are back. This week, Monsanto and Dupont dumped millions more of their GMO-tainted dollars into the campaign to defeat I-522, Washington State’s GMO labeling initiative. To date, Monsanto has ponied up $4.8 million. Dupont as kicked in $3.4 million.


http://organicconsumers.org/bytes/ob394.html

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Funds Holding Monsanto Company

http://www.morningstar.com/invest/categories/funds-holding-monsanto-company


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bill Gates Dodges Question on Why He Owns 500,000 Shares of Monsanto. -


http://www.nationofchange.org/bill-gates-dodges-questions-why-he-owns-500000-shares-monsanto-1360684583


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DOJ Mysteriously Quits Monsanto Antitrust Investigation


http://www.pakalertpress.com/2012/12/03/doj-mysteriously-quits-monsanto-antitrust-investigation/


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Monsanto's Government Connection
And the World Food Prize Goes To... - http://www.outsiderclub.com/monsantos-government-connection

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


US Supreme Court Grants Another Huge Gift to ‘Big Pharma’ -

http://foodfreedomgroup.com/2013/07/16/us-supreme-court-grants-another-huge-gift-to-big-pharma/

In a 5-4 decision, the US Supreme Court ruled that citizens who are severely injured, maimed or even killed by FDA-approved — but unreasonably dangerous — generic prescription drugs, have no right to seek compensation from the giant pharmaceutical companies which manufacture and market them to unsuspecting consumers.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Stop Agent Orange Corn! USDA Planning Pre-Christmas Approval for Spring 2013 Planting

Remember Agent Orange? The 2,4-D chemical concoction commissioned by the U.S. Army to defoliate jungles and destroy food crops during the Vietnam War? It could soon be coming to a grocery store near you. Within a week, the USDA could approve Dow's new "Enlist" brand corn, genetically engineered to resist massive doses of the herbicide 2,4-D. Unless we stop it.

 http://www.fourwinds10.net/siterun_data/science_technology/dna_gmo/news.php?q=1354900465

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Agent Orange's lethal legacy: Defoliants more dangerous than they had to be

Papers show firms didn't act on data to reduce toxicity

http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2009-12-17/health/chi-agent-orange-dioxindec17_1_chemical-companies-agent-orange-defoliants
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Help Stop the Attacks on Organics -

http://www.fourwinds10.net/siterun_data/science_technology/dna_gmo/news.php?q=1354900465

------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Former Monsanto Employee Talks GE Crop Concerns Amidst Deregulation Efforts -


 http://www.foodwhistleblower.org/blog/23-2012/425-former-monsanto-employee-talks-ge-crop-concerns-amidst-deregulation-efforts

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Monsanto leading super-secret ‘above Congress’ Obama trade scheme to outlaw GMO labeling worldwide   -

http://usapartisan.com/2013/09/09/monsanto-leading-super-secret-above-congress-obama-trade-scheme-to-outlaw-gmo-labeling-worldwide/


------------------------------------------------------------------------------

USDA now considers GMO contamination normal.

In a telling response to the highly concerning discovery that Monsanto’s genetically modified alfalfa ended up contaminating a ‘GMO-free’ crop harvest, the USDA went on record in declaring that the genetic contamination was perfectly normal and not any of their concern.
In fact, the USDA went on to say that there are measures in place to ‘minimize’ the widespread contamination of Monsanto’s genetically modified crop, and that’s all that’s required. What the organization is saying here is that it doesn’t matter if GMOs are contaminating ‘GMO-free’ crops, and it doesn’t even seem to matter that the very integrity of the international food supply is being mixed with genetically modified crop varieties. The agency tasked with keeping our food supply functioning safely even says that it’s really a ‘marketplace’ issue.

http://www.nationofchange.org/usda-now-considers-gmo-contamination-normal-1379946097

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

'GMO Answers' Website Launched By Monsanto, DuPont, More -

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/29/gmo-answers-website_n_3671483.html


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

GMO Company DuPont Pioneer Bribing Third-Grade Students With ‘Seed’ Money   - 

http://www.secretsofthefed.com/gmo-company-dupont-pioneer-bribing-third-grade-students-with-seed-money/

Biotechnology giant Pioneer Hi-Bred, which is owned by chemical giant DuPont, has made a strategic inroad into public education in Hawaii. According to The Garden Island, this key purveyor of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) has developed a partnership with Eleele Elementary School (EES) in Eleele, Hawaii, where the company has apparently been given free reign to subtly indoctrinate the school’s students into GMO dogma while bribing them with so-called “seed” money.

According to the paper, 59 students at EES were recently each given $25 in seed money to open bank accounts at Kaumakani Federal Credit Union as part of a program known as the Children’s Savings Project, which is meant to teach kids how to manage their money as well as how to participate in the banking system. But the program’s collaboration with Pioneer Hi-Bred opens up a whole new can of worms politically, as the concepts of saving money, growing food with seeds, and biotechnology are all being intermingled with one another for what appear to be ulterior motives.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


DuPont Learn and Earn Program

Fast Facts

    One-year program includes a paid work rotation and classroom instruction
    Students earn a certificate of applied science in chemical and polymer operator
technology


Initial grant includes 40 students for 2012 and 2013

Training provides needed talent pipeline for strong regional industry

Learn and Earn Program: An Introduction
  
DuPont Washington Works, one of the largest DuPont manufacturing facilities in the world, is partnering with West Virginia University at Parkersburg (WVU Parkersburg) to help meet the regional demand for chemical and process operators.

In addition to coursework, the one-year Learn and Earn program includes paid on-site training at the DuPont plant and culminates in a Chemical and Polymer Operator Technology Certificate. This model gives students the opportunity to link classroom instruction with practical work experience.

DuPont’s Learn and Earn Program is limited to career-technical programs that are low enrollment, high demand occupations. By focusing on the skills needed to meet the demands of polymer companies in and around Parkersburg, West Virginia, this partnership helps ensure a strong workforce pipeline is created to fill open positions in the local economy.

- See more at: http://www.aspeninstitute.org/policy-work/economic-opportunities/skills-americas-future/models-success/dupont-learn-earn-program#sthash.R7gklK3C.dpuf



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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 -

Chapter 13:

DuPont & China

-



DuPont serves up new Beijing packing facility    -    

http://europe.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2013-07/12/content_16769215.htm




US company DuPont has launched a probiotic blending and packaging facility in Beijing.

DuPont purchased the food processing plant in Beijing in 2011 before converting it. "Probiotics is the fastest growing part of our business, experiencing double digit growth rates annually around the world and in China," said Fabienne Saadane-Oaks, vice-president of health and protection, DuPont Nutrition and Health.

"As we continue to support the world's growing population, this expansion allows us to custom blend and package probiotic products in China's fast-growing dietary supplement, food and beverage industries."

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

High C8 Levels in DuPont’s Chinese Workers’ Blood

 http://scienceblogs.com/thepumphandle/2008/11/06/high-c8-levels-in-duponts-chinese-workers-blood/


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

China 'cancer villages' linked to water pollution

http://www.pollutionsolutions-online.com/news/water-wastewater/17/breaking_news/china_cancer_villages_linked_to_water_pollution/26416/

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

20 Images of China’s Severe Water Pollution

 http://gallagher-photo.com/2013/03/20/20-images-of-chinas-severe-water-pollution/

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

China 'cancer villages' linked to water pollution


 China’s Water Pollution Crisis

According to one report, “up to 40 percent of China’s rivers were seriously polluted” and “20 percent were so polluted their water quality was rated too toxic even to come into contact with.”

http://thediplomat.com/2013/01/22/forget-air-pollution-chinas-has-a-water-problem/

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-

Chapter 14:

DuPont & India

----

DuPont India at a glance

DuPont India is a wholly-owned subsidiary of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. DuPont association with India started in 1802 when the first shipment of raw materials for black powder to be used in explosives was imported by India from the U.S. Today, DuPont India markets a wide range of products in a variety of market segments including agriculture, food and nutrition; health care; home and construction; electronics; safety and protection; and transportation and infrastructure, bringing to life its powerful philosophy of The miracles of science™ to create a better world for all.


India Presence


DuPont has production facilities in India at Savli, near Baroda in Gujarat (for DuPont Performance Polymers, DuPont Crop Protection products and DuPont Refinish Paints), at Medchal near Hyderabad (for Pioneer® seeds), and at Madurai in Tamil Nadu (for DuPont Filaments and DuPont non-stick coatings) 

 http://www2.dupont.com/India_Country_Site/en_IN/Our_Company/India_at_glance.html

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


DuPont Pushes Teflon Car Care Products Take Off in India

 http://www.azom.com/news.aspx?newsID=1252
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Dupont India, Rallis to market each other's pesticides


NEW DELHI (CNI)--E.I. DuPont India and Rallis India have agreed to market each other’s new-generation insecticides against cotton pests.

Rallis, the country’s largest pesticides company, will co-market DuPont’s Indoxacarb which is applied to crops such as cotton, certain vegetables and fruit crops. DuPont originally introduced this insecticide in India under the brand Avaunt in 2000 to control American bollworm in cotton as part of the global launch of the new insecticide in 31 countries.


http://www.icis.com/Articles/2004/04/07/571992/dupont-india-rallis-to-market-each-others-pesticides.html

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Pesticide pollution of River Ghaggar in Haryana, India.

 

 Ghaggar, one of the major rivers of northern India originating in outer Himalayas and flowing through the state of Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan, is put to multiple uses. Along its course of 464 km, it receives discharge from various cities and runoff from agricultural lands. Punjab and Haryana are two predominantly agricultural states of India using substantial amounts of agrochemicals, yet there are no reports available in literature on the level of pesticides in the stretch of river Ghaggar through Punjab and Haryana. This is the first report on pesticide pollution of the river Ghaggar in Haryana. Water samples along the 230-km stretch of the river in Haryana were analyzed for the presence of organochlorine insecticide residues. While aldrin and dieldrin were below detection limits, both hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were traceable in all the water samples. High concentration of beta-HCH among SigmaHCH indicates old pollution source whereas predominance of p,p'-DDT among SigmaDDT reflects its recent use in the catchment area of the river. The concentrations of HCH and DDT in all the samples were above the permissible limits prescribed by the European Commission Directive for drinking purposes.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19107563

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

More Than Half of India’s Rivers Too Polluted to Drink

 http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/content/379515/more-than-half-of-indias-rivers-too-polluted-to-drink/


 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Indian river systems and pollution


 Most of the Indian rivers and their tributaries viz., Ganges, Yamuna, Godavari, Krishna, Sone, Cauvery Damodar and Brahmaputra are reported to be grossly polluted due to discharge of untreated sewage disposal and industrial effluents directly into the rivers. These wastes usually contain a wide variety of organic and inorganic pollutants including solvents, oils, grease, plastics, plasticizers, phenols, heavy metals, pesticides and suspended solids. The indiscriminate dumping and release of wastes containing the above mentioned hazardous substances into rivers might lead to environmental disturbance which could be considered as a potential source of stress to biotic community.

 http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/153800/

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


NASA Satellites Track Vanishing Groundwater

 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/02/100217-groundwater-crisis-nasa-satellites-india-environment/

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

India River Pollution: 80 Percent of Indian Sewage Flows Untreated Into Country's Rivers 

 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/03/05/india-river-pollution-sewage_n_2810213.html

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Great Plastic Tide

http://coastalcare.org/2009/11/plastic-pollution/

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ENVIRONMENT-INDIA: DuPont Under Fire for Poor Safety Record - 

 By IPS Correspondents
By IPS Correspondents

 Mahesh Uniyal

NEW DELHI, Apr 9 1996 (IPS) - Forced by citizens groups to quit Goa on India’s east coast last year, the U.S.-based DuPont’s planned nylon factory is again in trouble over the transnational’s (TNC) alleged poor safety record.

Booted out of Goa a year ago, the giant TNC moved its proposed 183 million dollar nylon 6,6 plant to Tamil Nadu on the east coast. Activists groups there have been campaigning against the project, saying DuPont has done nothing to inspire confidence.

India goes to polls later this month and the Anti-Dupont Joint Action Committee, dubbed “eco-terrorists” by the TNC, announced last week that it would persuade candidates from the region to campaign for DuPont’s ouster.

A member of the Committee told IPS that they were waiting for the parties to announce their manifestoes. The regional Pattali Makkal Kathchi which translates as the Toiling People’s Party, has declared its commitment to protect the environment.

Last week a visiting U.S. rights activist Ward Morehouse while urging activists to continue their fight, warned that DuPont was giving assurances similar to those by Union Carbide when it set up its factory in Bhopal, the scene of the world’s worst industrial disaster in 1984.

“The company has so little confidence in its own ability to avoid another Bhopal disaster that it has demanded the Government of India grant it immunity from liability for industrial accidents,” he is quoted saying in newspaper reports from Madras.

DuPont which has tied up with a leading Indian business house Thapar for the project has denied this oft-repeated charge, maintaining such a clause does not exist in its contract.

Yet it has rejected protesters’ demand for a public hearing and review of the project, offering instead, a closed door debate between activists, experts and company officials.

The protests started soon after the joint venture was permitted last August by the Tamil Nadu government to set up the factory 50 kms from the state capital Madras.

The decision led to an immediate hunger protest by the Madras- based Institute for Social Education and Development and the Tamil Nadu Agricultural Labourers’ Movement in Madras.

The ranks of anti-Dupont activists swelled when some 40 green and human rights groups in the state banded together last year to form a Joint Action Committee against the project. Construction at the site in Gummidipoondi started in August 1995.

DuPont and its Indian partner Thapar were forced to move out of the original site in southwestern coastal Goa state after prolonged, popular anti-Dupont protests peaked in violence last January in which an activist was killed.

In Goa, Dupont had faced stiff opposition from villagers who alleged they had been cheated of their ancestral lands to make way for the factory.
Mahesh Uniyal
NEW DELHI, Apr 9 1996 (IPS) - Forced by citizens groups to quit Goa on India’s east coast last year, the U.S.-based DuPont’s planned nylon factory is again in trouble over the transnational’s (TNC) alleged poor safety record.

Booted out of Goa a year ago, the giant TNC moved its proposed 183 million dollar nylon 6,6 plant to Tamil Nadu on the east coast. Activists groups there have been campaigning against the project, saying DuPont has done nothing to inspire confidence.
India goes to polls later this month and the Anti-Dupont Joint Action Committee, dubbed “eco-terrorists” by the TNC, announced last week that it would persuade candidates from the region to campaign for DuPont’s ouster.
A member of the Committee told IPS that they were waiting for the parties to announce their manifestoes. The regional Pattali Makkal Kathchi which translates as the Toiling People’s Party, has declared its commitment to protect the environment.
Last week a visiting U.S. rights activist Ward Morehouse while urging activists to continue their fight, warned that DuPont was giving assurances similar to those by Union Carbide when it set up its factory in Bhopal, the scene of the world’s worst industrial disaster in 1984.
“The company has so little confidence in its own ability to avoid another Bhopal disaster that it has demanded the Government of India grant it immunity from liability for industrial accidents,” he is quoted saying in newspaper reports from Madras.

DuPont which has tied up with a leading Indian business house Thapar for the project has denied this oft-repeated charge, maintaining such a clause does not exist in its contract.
Yet it has rejected protesters’ demand for a public hearing and review of the project, offering instead, a closed door debate between activists, experts and company officials.
The protests started soon after the joint venture was permitted last August by the Tamil Nadu government to set up the factory 50 kms from the state capital Madras.
The decision led to an immediate hunger protest by the Madras- based Institute for Social Education and Development and the Tamil Nadu Agricultural Labourers’ Movement in Madras.
The ranks of anti-Dupont activists swelled when some 40 green and human rights groups in the state banded together last year to form a Joint Action Committee against the project. Construction at the site in Gummidipoondi started in August 1995.
DuPont and its Indian partner Thapar were forced to move out of the original site in southwestern coastal Goa state after prolonged, popular anti-Dupont protests peaked in violence last January in which an activist was killed.
In Goa, Dupont had faced stiff opposition from villagers who alleged they had been cheated of their ancestral lands to make way for the factory.
- See more at: http://ipsnews2.wpengine.com/1996/04/environment-india-dupont-under-fire-for-poor-safety-record/#sthash.6LBkndnB.dpuf



 Goa’s Anti-Nylon Citizen’s Action Committee had accused the nylon plant of lax environmental standards: its effluents would pollute waterbodies in the neighbourhood and air-borne emissions would corrode ancient temples nearby.

The controversial DuPont-Thapar plant, India’s first to make nylon 6,6, will on completion have an annual capacity of 18,000 tonnes. At present India imports more than 20,000 tonnes of this chemical which is more durable and has better adhesive qualities than ordinary nylon and is used in automobile and aircraft tyres.

A DuPont spokesman told IPS that the nylon factory being set up in India “will be the safest and cleanest nylon plant anywhere in the world.” The TNC, he said, would be installing the latest machinery after administrative delays forced it to give up earlier plans to import outdated second hand machinery.

Goa’s Anti-Nylon Citizen’s Action Committee had accused the nylon plant of lax environmental standards: its effluents would pollute waterbodies in the neighbourhood and air-borne emissions would corrode ancient temples nearby.
The controversial DuPont-Thapar plant, India’s first to make nylon 6,6, will on completion have an annual capacity of 18,000 tonnes. At present India imports more than 20,000 tonnes of this chemical which is more durable and has better adhesive qualities than ordinary nylon and is used in automobile and aircraft tyres.
A DuPont spokesman told IPS that the nylon factory being set up in India “will be the safest and cleanest nylon plant anywhere in the world.” The TNC, he said, would be installing the latest machinery after administrative delays forced it to give up earlier plans to import outdated second hand machinery.
- See more at: http://ipsnews2.wpengine.com/1996/04/environment-india-dupont-under-fire-for-poor-safety-record/#sthash.6LBkndnB.dpuf




 http://ipsnews2.wpengine.com/1996/04/environment-india-dupont-under-fire-for-poor-safety-record/#sthash.6LBkndnB.dpuf
ENVIRONMENT-INDIA: DuPont Under Fire for Poor Safety Record - See more at: http://ipsnews2.wpengine.com/1996/04/environment-india-dupont-under-fire-for-poor-safety-record/#sthash.6LBkndnB.dpuf

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The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1142333/




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You Think the Air in Beijing Is Bad? Try New Delhi

http://india.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/01/31/you-think-the-air-in-beijing-is-bad-try-new-delhi/

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Indian Coal Plant Standards Weaker on Pollution Than China

http://theenergycollective.com/guayjguay/238756/indian-coal-plant-standards-allow-four-twenty-times-more-deadly-pollution-china

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India’s Air the World’s Unhealthiest, Study Says

http://india.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/02/01/indias-air-the-worlds-unhealthiest-study-says/

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CHARACTERIZATION OF FINE PARTICLE AIR POLLUTION IN
THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT 
 https://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/handle/1853/5112/chowdhury_muhammed_z_200407_phd.pdf;jsessionid=8EDF
B0BB6B06C96E17173A35DDA148FF.smart1?sequence=1


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-

Chapter 15:

 DuPont Pollution & contamination



--------------


DuPont Pollution & contamination

----



The Pompton Lakes Story  - 


E. I. DuPont was an explosives manufacturing plant that began operation in 1886. DuPont began manufacturing explosives at the Pompton Lakes Works (PLW) site when it acquired Laflin & Rand in 1902. DuPont conducted operations at the site from 1902 to April 1994, when the facility closed. The company manufactured lead azide, aluminum, or bronze shelled blasting caps, and operated processes that produced metal wires and aluminum and copper shells.

In the 1980s, it was discovered that the DuPont factory left toxins in the groundwater below more than 400 homes in Pompton Lakes. This was an accidental discovery made by John Sinsimer, mayor at the time, when he found documents about DuPont locked away in a file cabinet.

Waste management practices during this time resulted in significant contamination of surface water, soil and sediment, and groundwater contamination both on and off site.

According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, the E. I. DuPont site in Pompton Lakes, Passaic County, New Jersey is responsible for significant groundwater contamination in the area. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) order, and an EPA permit required cleanup of the facility.


http://uweb.und.nodak.edu/~amanda.hovious/Case3Bgdindex.html

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Dupont deal gave state more tainted soil    -
  

Five years after DuPont agreed to give the state 70 acres of forest for public use to
atone for contamination in Pompton Lakes, the land remains off limits because the soil has dangerously high levels of lead and arsenic. - See more at:

http://www.northjersey.com/topstories/pomptonlakes/111366374_Dupont_deal_gave_state_more_tainted_soil.html#sthash.9QiOOeJ8.dpuf



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CSB Votes to Approve Final Report on Three Accidents at DuPont Belle, West Virginia Plant following Public Comment Period

Washington, DC, September 22, 2011— The U.S. Chemical Safety Board (CSB) today released its final report on a series of three accidents that occurred over a 33-hour period on January 22 and 23, 2010, at the DuPont Corporation’s Belle, West Virginia, chemical manufacturing plant – including a fatal release of deadly phosgene gas, which was used as a chemical weapon in World War One.  



http://www.csb.gov/csb-votes-to-approve-final-report-on-three-accidents-at-dupont-belle-west-virginia-plant-following-public-comment-period/


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http://www.icis.com/Articles/2010/08/17/9385895/dupont+producing+methacrylates+at+belle+west+virginia.html

DuPont producing methacrylates at Belle, West Virginia


HOUSTON (ICIS)--Despite some market disbelief, DuPont said on Tuesday various methacrylates units at its chemical plant in Belle, West Virginia, are now up and running following a lengthy shutdown.

The Belle facility went into “stand down” mode in January after a series of accidents, including a phosgene leak that killed a DuPont worker.

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CSB Investigation Finds Three DuPont Accidents in Belle, West Virginia, Resulted from Numerous Safety Deficiencies including Lack of Safe Equipment Design, Ineffective Mechanical Integrity Programs, and Incomplete Investigations of Previous Near Misses


http://www.csb.gov/csb-investigation-finds-three-dupont-accidents-in-belle-west-virginia-resulted-from-numerous-safety-deficiencies-including-lack-of-safe-equipment-design-ineffective-mechanical-integrity-programs-and-incomplete-investigations-of-previous-near-misses/


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C8 panel says it has found cancer death rise at DuPont -

http://www.wvgazette.com/News/201107190940


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DuPont Workers and a Cancer Cluster? -

http://scienceblogs.com/thepumphandle/2008/06/11/dupont-workers-and-a-cancer-cluster/

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The mortality of DuPont workers in relation to exposure to PFOA (C8)


http://www.c8sciencepanel.org/pdfs/Status_Report_C8_and_mortality_in_workers_15July2011.pdf

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Attorneys in DuPont smelt case to share fees with lead plaintiffs -



DuPont was ordered to pay $196.2 million in punitive damages after the company was convicted of wanton, willful and reckless conduct in its operation of a zinc-smelting plant. The plaintiffs were all residents of Spelter, where the plant was operated. They sued DuPont in 2004, claiming the company had lied about health threats from arsenic, cadmium and lead that contaminated air, soil and water.

DuPont was ordered to pay a total of nearly $400 million, when all the phases of the trial were combined.

http://wvrecord.com/news/210722-attorneys-in-dupont-smelt-case-to-share-fees-with-lead-plaintiffs?doing_wp_cron=1375082768.9327681064605712890625



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DuPont: Corporate Rap Sheet -

http://www.corp-research.org/dupont

( Important information to read )

----------------------------------------------------------------------------


 DuPont says sulfur dioxide vapor caused workers to become ill -

http://www.dailymail.com/News/201110102291



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DuPont: Sulfur Dioxide Vapor Hit Workers -

 http://www.isssource.com/dupont-sulfur-dioxide-vapor-hit-workers/


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DuPont Settles Charges Related To Sulfuric Acid Release -

DuPont has reached a $1.5 million agreement with the Justice Department and the Environmental Protection Agency to settle allegations related to a 1995 sulfuric acid release at a Kentucky plant.


 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/cen-v078n032.p012a

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Du Pont Agrees to Spend $66 Million to Reduce Air Pollution at Four Plants -


 (Washington, D.C. – July 20, 2007) The Department of Justice and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced a settlement today with E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co. that is expected to reduce more than 13,000 tons of harmful emissions annually from four sulfuric acid production plants in Louisiana, Virginia, Ohio and Kentucky. 



 http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/bd4379a92ceceeac8525735900400c27/2e92e390f2ba28b38525731e00645d51!OpenDocument



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 http://delisle.passchristian.net/id10.htm


LAWYERS TARGET DUPONT-DELISLE
THEY SAY IT MAKES PEOPLE ILL; FIRM SAYS NO

DeLISLE - - Lawyers have signed up more than 800 clients who claim that chemicals from DuPont's DeLisle plant have caused a variety of illnesses.
The lawyers plan to file a multibillion-dollar federal lawsuit --- yes, billions --- within weeks against DuPont, but they admit they have not linked chemical emissions from the plant to reported illnesses in the
community.


Since it opened in 1979, the DuPont plant has experienced several major leaks of poisonous titanium tetrachloride into the air. Plant manager Aldo Morell said one employee has lung damage from exposure to the chemical but remains on the job. When exposed to air, the chemical decomposes into a cloud of titanium dioxide and hydrochloric acid, which in heavy concentrations can damage the lungs, eyes and skin.

 According to the EPA's Toxic Release Inventory, DuPont's reported releasesof titanium tetrachloride peaked at 18,000 pounds in 1989. After DuPont instituted a "no leak" program, the amount of titanium tetrachloride released dropped sharply, from 12,000 pounds in 1990 to 5,000 pounds in 1991,


Morell said the last major spill of titanium tetrachloride occurred in 1996, when the company reported about 100 gallons leaked and created a large cloud that drifted over houses near the plant. Four employees were
hospitalized. Residents were given warning monitors for their homes after that spill.

 According to the EPA's Toxic Release Inventory, DuPont created nearly 15 million pounds of toxic chemicals in 2000. An estimated 85 percent went down the injection wells, while 14.7 percent went up smokestacks and about 0.3 percent was placed in a landfill on the DuPont property. The EPA has reviewed and approved DuPont's procedures for handling its waste, including the deep injection well, which has safeguards to prevent it from contaminating groundwater.

 EPA's figures indicate that only a fraction of dangerous elements produced at the plant, such as chromium and lead, or minerals such as manganese, are released directly into the air or water. The releases are at levels the EPA does not consider dangerous.

For example, the TRI shows that DuPont's toxic byproducts included 180,822 pounds of lead in 1999. A total of 99.5 percent was pumped down the injection well, while 77 pounds were released into the air or water and 740 pounds were stockpiled in a landfill on company property, where DuPont says the byproducts are not a danger to residents.

The EPA relies on DuPont to report its emissions and toxic releases, though the process is overseen and reviewed by the agency. The lawyers who plan to sue DuPont distrust the EPA's figures. "We know what they are reporting, and we know from the witnesses that the reporting is not correct," said New Orleans lawyer Mike Fenasci. Fenasci said analysis of hair samples from children and adults in the Kiln-DeLisle area, which has 2,600 households, has shown elevated levels of several heavy metals listed as DuPont byproducts. Additionally, the lawyers said they have clients with a variety of illnesses, including different forms of cancer, lupus and thyroid conditions.




 DuPont proposes wetlands fill to expand toxic waste landfill

DuPont DeLisle Plant proposes to fill 24 acres of wetlands near the Bay of St. Louis to build a new 32-acre landfill. This is despite the fact that there have been a large number of deaths and illnesses around the DuPont Plant that many believe are linked to toxic emissions from DuPont. In the 2000 Toxic Release Inventory DuPont DeLisle Plant reported releasing about 42 percent of the dioxin-like compounds reported in the entire U.S. In 2001 DuPont still led the entire country in dioxin releases, and reported releasing a total of 14 million pounds of toxics including dangerous heavy metals (see www.epa.gov/tri/, zip 39571).



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A Corporate Profile By Corporate Watch UK
Completed November 2002

DUPONT (E.I. DUPONT DE NEMOURS AND COMPANY)


( The information from the chapters listed in orange, is additional information for the viewers to read. )

http://www.corporatewatch.org/?lid=173



Overview

































  • Arms Manufacturing
  • Control of the food chain
  • Working Conditions
  • Attempting to monopolise food production
  • Biopiracy and patenting
  • Genetically modified (GM) crops
  • Union Busting
  • Health and Safety
  • Using prison labour
  • Ripping off pensioners
  • Genetic Screening
  • Moving production to the developing world
  • Supporting oppressive regimes
  • DuPont’s nylon plant in Goa
  • Endangering the public's health
  • Lead paint
  • Formaldehyde
  • Dioxins
  • Pollution
  • 3 case studies:
     
  • Tetraethyl lead
    · Ozone Depletants (CFCs/HCFCs )
    · Benlate



  • There is hardly a single chemical toxin in which DuPont has not played a major role in developing. “The company pioneered the production of sulphur dioxide, leaded petrol, CFC's and recently deep well injection of hazardous waste. The company then used dubious science, political manipulation and cover up to avoid restrictions on their use.”  During its 200 years of existence, DuPont has committed a staggering amount of corporate crimes (far too many to mention here). The following section contains just a selection of these.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -

    Chapter 16: 

    Halocarbons

    -

    Halocarbon

    Common uses for halocarbons have been as solvents, pesticides, refrigerants, fire-resistant oils, ingredients of elastomers, adhesives and sealants, electrically insulating coatings, plasticizers, and plastics. Many halocarbons have specialized uses in industry. One halocarbon, sucralose, is a sweetener.

    Before they became strictly regulated, the general public often encountered haloalkanes as paint and cleaning solvents such as trichloroethane (1,1,1-trichloroethane) and carbon tetrachloride (tetrachloromethane), pesticides like 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB, ethylene dibromide), and refrigerants like Freon-22 (duPont trademark for chlorodifluoromethane). Some haloalkanes are still widely used for industrial cleaning, such as methylene chloride (dichloromethane), and as refrigerants, such as R-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane).

    Haloalkenes have also been used as solvents, including perchloroethylene (Perc, tetrachloroethene), widespread in dry cleaning, and trichloroethylene (TCE, 1,1,2-trichloroethene). Other haloalkenes have been chemical building blocks of plastics such as polyvinyl chloride ("vinyl" or PVC, polymerized chloroethene) and Teflon (duPont trademark for polymerized tetrafluoroethene, PTFE).

    Haloaromatics include the former Aroclors (Monsanto Company trademark for polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs), once widely used in power transformers and capacitors and in building caulk, the former Halowaxes (Union Carbide trademark for polychlorinated naphthalenes, PCNs), once used for electrical insulation, and the chlorobenzenes and their derivatives, used for disinfectants, pesticides such as dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane), herbicides such as 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), askarel dielectrics (mixed with PCBs, no longer used in most countries), and chemical feedstocks.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halocarbon


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -

    Chapter 17:

    PCBs


    -----------



      HALOGENATED WAXES



        PCB
        PCBS
        POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL
        POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS
        POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCB)
        POLYCHLOROPOLYPHENYLS



    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20130158197


    POLYHYDROXY CURABLE FLUOROELASTOMER COMPOSITIONS

    Patent application number: 20130158197

    Inventors:  E I Du Pont De Nemours And Company (Wilmington, DE, US)  E I Du Pont De

    Nemours And Company (Wilmington, DE, US)
    Assignees:  E. I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS AND COMPANY
    IPC8 Class: AC08K55425FI
    USPC Class: 525104

    Read more: http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20130158197#ixzz2bgi4WgeO

    Class name: At least one solid polymer derived from ethylenic reactants only with saturated si-c or si-h reactant or polymer thereof; or with solid copolymer derived from at least one si-c or si-h reactant wherein at least one of the reactants forming the solid copolymer is saturated; or with spfi wherein at least one of the necessary ingredients contains a si-c or si-h bond or with a reaction product thereof; or with a sicp containing a si-h or si-c bond solid polymer from ethylenic reactants only is
    derived from reactant containing halogen atom

    Publication date: 2013-06-20




    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Biomarkers for Great Lakes priority contaminants: halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. -

     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8635442


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Body burden levels of dioxin, furans, and PCBs among frequent consumers of Great Lakes sport fish. The Great Lakes Consortium.   -

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10092416

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    Potential exposure to PCBs, DDT, and PBDEs from sport-caught fish consumption in relation to breast cancer risk in Wisconsin.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241824/


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    Exposure assessment and initial intervention regarding fish consumption of tribal members of the Upper Great Lakes Region in the United States.  -

     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15220067


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


     PCB-Related Alteration of Thyroid Hormones and Thyroid Hormone Receptor Gene Expression in Free-Ranging Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) -

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1513321/


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Persistent organic pollutants in the diet of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) inhabiting Puget Sound, Washington (USA), and the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia (Canada): a food basket approach -

     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16268158

    Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) inhabiting Puget Sound (WA, USA) recently were found to be seven times more contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) than those inhabiting the adjacent Strait of Georgia (BC, Canada). We carried out a food basket approach to approximate realistic dietary exposures of both new (e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs]) and legacy (e.g., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT]) persistent organic pollutants (POPs) for these harbor seals. Food basket homogenates, each consisting of over 200 individual prey items, were constructed using documented dietary preferences for harbor seals in these basins, and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, flame retardants, and other persistent contaminants. Concentration rankings for the major contaminant classes in the Puget Sound food basket were sigmaPCBs > sigmaPBDEs > sigmaDDT, and for the Strait of Georgia food basket were sigmaPCBs > sigmaDDT > sigmaPBDEs, highlighting the emergence of PBDEs as a significant concern in the regional environment. Consistent with observations in harbor seals, PCB concentrations in the Puget Sound food basket were seven times higher than in its Strait of Georgia counterpart. Based on our food basket results, the estimated daily intake of sigmaPCB toxic equivalents to dioxin by Puget Sound harbor seals exceeds some wildlife consumption guidelines for PCBs. Our results indicate that both legacy and new POPs present a health risk to these marine mammals.


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    Percutaneous absorption of PCBs from soil: In vivo rhesus monkey, in vitro human skin, and binding to powdered human stratum corneum


    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15287399309531758#.UjCK7T_NntZ


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    Levels and distribution pattern of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in razor clams Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) from Galicia (north-west Spain) in relation to biometric parameters    -

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17071525


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife.


     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1533232/

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Recent advances in the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental and biological media.  -

     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3935653



    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------




    PCB Pollutant Minimization Plan Workshop

    January 30, 2007



    http://www.nj.gov/drbc/library/documents/PMPWorkshop_0107/dupont_electrical.pdf


    "These materials were prepared solely for internal use by
    DuPont and may not be used or relied upon by any other party
    for any purpose. DuPont makes no representation that the
    information is accurate, complete or properly applies legal
    requirements that may cover any of the activities described.

    No third party is authorized to use or rely upon these materials
    in any way and DuPont expressly disclaims any and all
    responsibility for the use of the materials by any third party for
    any purpose. Any commercial use of the materials for any
    purpose by any person is strictly prohibited."



    PCB Trade Names
    (Not All Inclusive)

    Aroclor – 1016 Aroclor -- 1242 Aroclor – 1260 Aroclor – 4465
    Aroclor – 1221 Aroclor – 1248 Aroclor – 1268 Aroclor – 5442
    Aroclor – 1232 Aroclor – 1254 Aroclor – 2565 Aroclor – 5460
    Asbestol Dykanol Kanechlor Pyralene
    Askaral Elemex Kanechlors Pyranol
    Chlophen Fenclor Kanechlors-
    300,400,500
    Saf-T-Kuhl
    Clorextol Hi Temp 227 Kennechlor Sanotherm – FR
    Chlorphen Hyvol No-Flamol Therminol FR-0, FR-1,
    FR-2, FR-3, 77
    Chlorinol Euracel MCS-1489 Pyroclor
    Diachlor EEC-18 Inclor Pydraul
    DK Inerteen Phenoclor Santovac 1 and 3



    Potential PCB Containing Electrical Equipment

    6/6/2007
    DUPONT USE ONLY
    M. Press
    5
    Potential PCB Containing Electrical Equipment

    Transformers, Voltage Regulators,
    Large Capacitors, Switches,
    Circuit Breakers, Sectionalizers,
    Reclosers, Motor Starters,
    Electromagnets, Cable,
    Lamp Ballasts and Small Capacitors



    When We Think of PCBs We Think of Transformers

    Transformers contain mineral
    oil dielectric fluids. Units often
    contained PCBs with trade
    names such as Aroclor,
    Askarel, Pyranol, Inerteen
    Clorinol, and Pydraul.

    When PCBs are present at
    50 ppm or greater the fluids
    removed from such units
    require management as PCB
    wastes.

    All units at DuPont NJ/DE
    plants have been retro-filled to
    <50 ppm PCBs or were Non-
    PCB as purchased.


    Don’t Forget Other Sources Of PCB Small Capacitors

    Refrigerators, freezers,
    microwave ovens, water
    fountains and air conditioners
    are some possible sources of
    PCB small capacitors

    Remove capacitors from
    equipment and examine to
    determine if “PCB” or “Non-
    PCB”, and manage
    accordingly.

    -

    These Lamp Fixtures Are
    The Source of Most PCB Lamp Ballasts

    The photo depicts a fluorescent
    lamp fixture, a common source of
    PCB ballasts.

    The fixture must be disassembled in
    order to remove the lamp ballasts
    for examination as “PCB” or Non-
    PCB”.
    NOTE: Fluorescent tubes containing
    mercury must also be managed
    properly.

    Do not discard entire lamp fixtures
    as scrap metal without ballast
    removal and PCB evaluation.
    Remove plastic lamp cover for trash
    disposal (unless stained with ballast
    tars).


    Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Are
    A Source of PCBs and Small Capacitors


    By far the most prevalent electrical
    equipment source of PCBs at DuPont
    Plant’s is fluorescent lamp ballasts.

    Pre-1980 ballasts may contain >50 ppm
    PCB in the asphaltic potting (insulating)
    materials as well as a small PCB liquid
    filled capacitor.

    Unless the ballast states "No PCBs", it
    must be managed as regulated PCB
    waste. The site maintains a PCB Ballast
    waste profile for use in managing
    ballasts and capacitors.

    DO NOT DISPOSE OF PCB BALLASTS
    AS SCRAP METAL OR AS TRASH

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     PCBs



    General Electric (GE), DuPont & Monsanto

    ----


    Dupont’s Mercury Problem Is Now EPA’s Problem Too -

    http://www.wolfenotes.com/2012/01/duponts-mercury-problem-is-now-epas-problem-too/



    Dupont has a big mercury problem in Pompton Lakes, NJ (in addition to the cancer cluster and vapor intrusion).

    Scientifically and legally, the problem is similar to General Electric’s (GE) problem with dumping toxic and bioaccumulative PCB’s in the Hudson River, where, according to EPA:

     " From approximately 1947 to 1977, the General Electric Company (GE) discharged as much as 1.3 million pounds of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from its capacitor manufacturing plants at the Hudson Falls and Fort Edward facilities into the Hudson River. "

     That GE dumping poisoned 200 miles of the Hudson River, leading EPA to declare that portion of the River a Superfund site and forcing GE to cleanup the river at a cost of over $500 million.

    Like GE, for almost 100 years, Dupont used and disposed of mercury compounds at their explosives manufacturing facility.

    Like GE, mercury air emissions and mercury dumping on the Dupont site have led to significant off site releases, so that soils and sediments along the the Acid Brook, Pompton Lake, and natural resource and the downriver region are poisoned.



    Mercury is highly toxic to humans, fish and wildlife – it bioaccumulates through the food chain. Its effects are magnified by predators up the food chain and persist for many years.

    Like in the the Hudson River, because of mercury pollution, it is unsafe to eat freshwater fish in NJ – and consumption warnings are posted on Pompton Lake (but largely ignored).

    Dupont wiped out an entire fishery. And like Hudson River PCB’s, EPA has extensive national scientific and regulatory experience with mercury in the Great lakes region that is relevant to Dupont Pompton Lakes.

    Like GE, Dupont wants to minimize the cost of cleanup and resists EPA cleanup mandates.


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



     US: General Electric workers sue Monsanto over PCBs


    More than 500 General Electric Co. employees have sued Monsanto Co. along with two related companies, claiming they were exposed to toxic chemicals manufactured for decades by Monsanto, the company said Wednesday.

    The product liability suit, which seeks $1 billion in punitive and $1 billion in actual damages, names Monsanto, Pharmacia, which is now owned by Pfizer Inc., and bankrupt Solutia Inc. and was filed in mid-December by 590 current employees of a General Electric plant in Schenectady, New York.

    The suit claims personal injury and fear of future disease related to contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which were banned by Congress in 1978 and found to be harmful to human health.

    The suit claims that Monsanto knew of the hazards of PCBs but continued to make the chemicals because of their profitability. And even though Monsanto stopped making the chemicals nearly 30 years ago, the lawsuit claims the hazardous chemicals have been leaking from creek beds and landfills, further exposing the GE workers.


    http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=13140

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     Massachusetts Schools Sue Monsanto For PCB Contamination -

    http://frrole.com/o/massachusetts-schools-sue-monsanto-for-p-spinchief-boston


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    Earth's Enemies: GE, Monsanto and Obama's AG pick, Ignacia Moreno





    According to the Housatonic River Initiative:

        "Monsanto produced PCBs at plants in Sauget, Illinois and Anniston, Alabama until 1978. PCBs were used in capacitors, transformers, hydraulic fluids, lubricants, carbonless copy paper, inks, pesticide extenders, sealants and flame-retardants.

        "Several different trademarked names for PCBs are used by various polluters. Westinghouse called its product Inerteen. Monsanto used the trademark Aroclor, while GE used the trade name, Pyranol, to denote its version of Monsanto-produced PCBs. Pyranol was used by GE from 1932 until 1977."


    Ed Bates served as the Manager of Tests for the Power Transformer at the GE plant in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Acknowledging a 3% loss of PCB product, he estimates that GE dumped "about a million and a half pounds of PCBs" into the Housatonic River. The EPA reports only 40,000 pounds. Thirty years later, the river basin is still toxic.



    http://www.opednews.com/articles/Earth-s-Enemies-GE-Monsa-by-Rady-Ananda-090516-430.html

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    The History of PCBs
     
    When Were Health Problems Detected?

    http://www.foxriverwatch.com/monsanto2a_pcb_pcbs.html




    1927 --- PCBs were first manufactured commercially by the Anniston Ordnance Company, in Anniston, Alabama. The Anniston Plant’s legacy began in 1915 when Theodore Swann founded the company to manufacture six-inch explosive shell cases for the U.S. Army. To see photos and learn what the Anniston plant makes now, visit http://www.solutia.com/corporate/worldwide/anniston.html


    1930 --- The company’s name changed to the Swann Chemical Company.

    1933 --- Problems soon arose at the manufacturing plant. 23 out of 24 workers in the plant had acne-like pustules on their faces and bodies. Some complained of loss of energy, appetite and libido as well as other skin ailments. These symptoms are now known as classic first signs of PCB exposure.

    1935 --- Swann was purchased in 1935 by the Monsanto Industrial Chemical Company of St. Louis, Missouri. Monsanto produced PCBs at plants in Sauget, Illinois and Anniston, Alabama (until 1977.)  Monsanto then licensed others to make PCBs and the product took off. PCB's have been produced in other countries including Italy (Caffaro), France (Protolec), Japan (Kanegafuchi Chemical Co.), Germany (Bayer), and they may still be produced in Russia.  As electricity came into widespread use during the first half of this century, equipment suppliers like GE and Westinghouse became major users of PCBs. One Monsanto engineer allegedly called it "as perfect as any industrial chemical can be."



    1937 --- A study published in the Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology suggested links between PCBs and liver disease.

    1937 --- The Harvard School of Public Health hosted a one-day meeting on the problem of "systemic effects" of certain chlorinated hydrocarbons including "chlorinated diphenyl" (an early name for PCBs). The meeting was attended by representatives from Halowax Corp., Monsanto, General Electric, the U.S. Public Health Service, state health officials from Massachusetts and Connecticut, and others. Before World War I, the Halowax Corporation, in New York City, began manufacturing chlorinated naphthelenes as a coating for electric wire, and companies like General Electric began using it. The president of Halowax, Sandford Brown, told the meeting that they had observed no problems in their workers until "the past 4 or 5 years... Then we come to the higher stages [greater number of chlorine atoms in the mixture], combined with chlorinated diphenyl and other products, and suddenly this problem is presented to us." By the mid-1930s, workers at Halowax and at GE, and even some of their customers, were breaking out with chloracne—small pimples with dark pigmentation of the exposed area, followed by blackheads and pustules. In 1936 three workers at the Halowax Company died. Autopsies of two revealed severe liver damage. Halowax then hired Harvard University researcher, Cecil K. Drinker, to investigate.


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Did Monsanto, General Electric, Westinghouse, and Bayer cause a generation of children with ADD?

    http://www.wellnessresources.com/health/articles/did_monsanto_general_electric_westinghouse_and_bayer_cause_a_generation_of/


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    The story of how three corporate giants -- Monsanto , GE and Westinghouse -- covered their toxic trail

    http://www.sierraclub.org/sierra/200103/conspiracy.asp



    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albemarle_Corporation

    Albemarle Corporation


    Also in 2000, Albemarle Corporation, Cytec Industries Inc., and GE Specialty Chemicals, Inc., a subsidiary of General Electric Company, announced their intention to form a new business-to-business internet joint venture, PolymerAdditives.com. The creation of this venture was intended to help provide materials faster and more efficiently directly from trusted suppliers.






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    -

    Chapter 18:

    DuPont & Goldman Sachs

    -

    DuPont & Goldman Sachs






       DuPont at Goldman Sachs 17th Annual Agribusiness Conference

    http://investors.dupont.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=73320&p=irol-EventDetails&EventId=4900908


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    http://www.kycbs.net/DuPont.htm


    The Deadly Brew at
    DuPont

    DuPont (DD:NYSE) gave its shareholders some instant gratification last week, setting a $3 billion buyback whose impact was juiced up by a semi-exotic trading arrangement with Goldman Sachs (GS:NYSE).






    But what really lit the fire was DuPont's $3 billion "accelerated share repurchase"
    plan, in which Goldman was hired to help retire 8% of DuPont's outstanding stock over nine months. Unlike typical buybacks, which might never be consummated, DuPont's deal created an immediate improvement in the supply/demand profile of its stock while lowering the denominator in the company's earnings-per-share calculation.

    While the agreement helped revive a flagging stock, Goldman Sachs hardly goes hungry in the deal. Not only does the powerhouse investment bank rake in a fee for structuring the transaction, it also gets a chance do some trading arbitrage in shares of DuPont. In the deal, DuPont pays Goldman Sachs for 75.7 million shares at their price the day before the agreement was announced: $39.62 apiece. Over the next nine months, the investment bank will make open-market purchases of DuPont shares to close out the position. The transaction is similar to a short sale in which a trader sells borrowed shares and must replace them later.

    On the surface, the deal might seem risky for Goldman Sachs -- couldn't it lose money if it's forced to repurchase the DuPont shares at inflated prices? The answer is no.

    The way accelerated buybacks -- which have been around for a little over a decade -- are structured, Goldman has an insurance policy against any such swing.

    Roughly speaking, if DuPont's stock rises, the company will pay Goldman Sachs the difference between the initial buyback price and the "volume-weighted average price" of the stock over the period when Goldman does its buying. Conversely, if the stock declines in price over time, Goldman Sachs will credit the difference back to DuPont....


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    -

    Chapter: 19

    Dupont & the Carlyle Group


    ----


    Dupont & the Carlyle Group


     Carlyle Group LP (CG), Monsanto Company (MON): E I Du Pont De Nemours And Co (DD)’s Really Being Strengthened by Going to Seed - http://www.insidermonkey.com/blog/carlyle-group-lp-cg-monsanto-company-mon-e-i-du-pont-de-nemours-and-co-dds-really-being-strengthened-by-going-to-seed-239430/

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




    The Carlyle Group Completes Acquisition of DuPont Performance Coatings

     
    Washington, DC – Global alternative asset manager The Carlyle Group L.P. (NASDAQ: CG), has completed its acquisition of DuPont Performance Coatings for $4.9 billion and announced today that the company is being renamed Axalta Coating Systems.  Axalta Coating Systems is a global supplier of coatings to the transportation and industrial sectors.  The investment was funded primarily with equity from Carlyle Partners V and Carlyle Europe Partners III.“We are excited to invest in Axalta Coating Systems and believe its strong market position and global footprint will enable the company to capitalize on opportunities in rapidly emerging markets such as China and Brazil. As experienced investors in the industrial and transportation sectors, the One Carlyle global network can help Axalta Coating Systems grow and create value,” said Martin Sumner, Principal of The Carlyle Group.



    Axalta Coating Systems also serves the decorative, architectural, general industrial and job-coater segments of the powder coatings market under the brands Alesta® Powder Coatings, NAP-GARD® FBE Powder Coatings and ABCITE® Powder Coatings,.


    http://pc.dupont.com/dpc/en/US/html/visitor/home/carlyle_acquisition_complete_press_release.html
     ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     
    DuPont car shifts to Axalta 


    http://www.nascar.com/en_us/news-media/articles/2013/02/04/dupont-acquisition-gordon-axalta.html


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


     http://pc.dupont.com/dpc/en/US/html/visitor/common/pdfs/b/product/dr/MSDS/US_en_GNRC_2-2_RFN.pdf




    Axalta Coating Systems


    Material Safety Data Sheet

     2. Composition/information on ingredients

     1-Methylimidazole

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0041008X69901112
     Toxicity of methylimidazoles


    Toxic manifestations of ammoniated invert molasses in cattle can be simulated in laboratory animals such as rabbits, mice and day-old chicks by administering 4-methylimidazole (4-me-I). This compound, which results from the interaction of reducing sugars with ammonia, has previously been isolated from ammoniated invert molasses in addition to other compounds such as pyrazine derivatives. The mouse seems to be the most practical animal for testing the neurological signs produced by 4-me-I. The convulsive death produced by 4-me-I in the rabbit is characterized by the typical epileptiform EEG (high voltage, high frequency) concomitant with clonic and tonic seizures followed by tonic extensor seizure (high voltage, low frequency peaks) and terminal respiratory paralysis. This fatal course can be prevented by pentobarbital sodium and chlordiazepoxide. Diphenylhydantoin did not protect mice against 4-me-I seizures and death, in contrast to phenobarbital sodium and chlordiazepoxide. 4-Methylimidazole had approximately one-fourth the convulsant potency of pentylenetetrazole. Imidazole, 1-methylimidazole, and 2-methylimidazole produced neurologic effects in mice similar to those caused by 4-me-I, but they were less potent as convulsants. The spontaneous motor activity of mice treated with 4-me-I was reduced to about 50% during the period preceding the seizures. In rabbits, 4-me-I decreased heart rate as much as 33% below the control and increased the respiratory rate to three times the control value during the period preceding the convulsions.


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    Toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of 4-methylimidazole in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice.

     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17619857



    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Coke Changed Caramel Color To Avoid Cancer Warning; Pepsi In Transition


    In 2011, the state of California created a problem for the soda industry.
    The caramel color that Coke and Pepsi used to give colas that distinctive brown hue contained a chemical, 4-methylimidazole — 4-MEI — that is listed as a carcinogen by the state.
    And in accordance with California's Proposition 65 law, the levels of 4-MEI found in sodas would have warranted a cancer warning label on every can sold in the state.

     http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2013/07/03/198040172/coke-changed-caramel-color-to-avoid-cancer-warning-pepsi-in-transition

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Axalta Coating Systems Material Safety Data Sheet

    October 1, 2013


    http://pc.dupont.com/dpc/en/US/html/visitor/common/pdfs/b/product/dr/MSDS/US_en_GNRC_12-0_RFN.pdf


    Product: Isocyanate Activators, Hardeners, and Additives

    2. Composition/information on ingredients

     1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate
     4-chlorobenzotrifluoride
     Acetone
     Aliphatic polyisocyanate resin
     Aromatic hydrocarbon-A
     Aromatic hydrocarbon-B
     Butyl acetate
     Cumene
     Diisobutyl ketone
     Ethanol, 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)
     Ethylbenzene
     Methyl ethyl ketone
     Trixylenyl phosphate
     Vm&p naphtha
     Xylene

     Copyright 2013, Axalta Coating Systems, LLC and all affiliates. All rights reserved. Copies may be made only for those using Axalta Coating Systems products.

    3. Hazards identification Potential Health Effects:
    Inhalation: May cause nose and throat irritation. May cause nervous system depression, characterized by the following progressive steps: headache, dizziness, nausea, staggering
    gait, confusion, unconsciousness. Reports have associated repeated and prolonged overexposure to solvents with permanent brain and nervous system damage. If this product contains or is mixed with an isocyanate activator/hardener, the following health effects may apply: Exposure to isocyanates may cause respiratory sensitization.
    This effect may be permanent. Symptoms include an asthma-like reaction with shortness of breath, wheezing, cough or permanent lung sensitization. This effect may be delayed for several hours after exposure. Repeated overexposure to isocyanates may cause a decrease in lung function, which may be permanent. Individuals with lung or breathing problems or prior reactions to isocyanates must not be exposed to vapors or spray mist of this product.
    Ingestion: May result in gastrointestinal distress.Skin or eye contact:
    May cause irritation or burning of the eyes. Repeated or prolonged liquid contact may cause skin irritation with discomfort and dermatitis.

    1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate
    Overexposure may cause asthma-like reactions with shortness of breath, wheezing, cough, which may be permanent; or permanent lung sensitization. This effect may be delayed for several hours after exposure. The following medical conditions may be aggravated by exposure: asthma, skin disorders, respiratory disorders.
    Overexposure may cause damage to any of the following organs/systems: lungs, skin. Potential skin sensitizer that may cause allergic reactions and contact dermatitis resulting in severe irritation, dryness, and cracking of the skin.
    4-chlorobenzotrifluoride
    Increased susceptibility to the effects of this material may be observed in people with preexisting disease of any of the following: skin. Prolonged or repeated exposure may cause damage to any of the following organs/systems: kidneys, liver, thyroid. Potential skin sensitizer that may cause allergic reactions and contact dermatitis resulting in severe irritation, dryness, and cracking of the skin. Ingestion may cause any of the following: gastrointestinal irritation. Eye contact may cause any of the following: permanent eye injury. Inhalation may cause any of the following: stupor (central nervous system depression), respiratory tract irritation.
    Acetone
    The following medical conditions may be aggravated by exposure: lung disease, eye disorders, skin disorders. Overexposure may cause damage to any of the following organs/systems: blood, central nervous system, eyes, kidneys, liver, respiratory system, skin.
    Aliphatic polyisocyanate resin
    Overexposure may cause asthma-like reactions with shortness of breath, wheezing, cough, which may be permanent; or permanent lung sensitization. This effect may be delayed for several hours after exposure. The following medical conditions may be aggravated by exposure: asthma, skin disorders, respiratory disorders. Potential skin sensitizer that may cause allergic reactions and contact dermatitis resulting in severe irritation, dryness, and cracking of the skin.
    Aromatic hydrocarbon-A
    Laboratory studies with rats have shown that petroleum distillates can cause kidney damage and kidney or liver tumors. These effects were not seen in similar studies with guinea pigs, dogs, or monkeys. Several studies evaluating petroleum workers have not shown a significant increase of kidney damage or an increase in kidney or liver tumors.
    Aromatic hydrocarbon-B
    The following medical conditions may be aggravated by exposure: skin disorders. Laboratory studies with rats have shown that petroleum distillates can cause kidney damage and kidney or liver tumors. These effects were not seen in similar studies with guinea pigs, dogs, or monkeys. Several studies evaluating petroleum workers have not shown a significant increase of kidney damage or an increase in kidney or liver tumors.
    Butyl acetate
    May cause abnormal liver function. The following medical conditions may be aggravated by exposure: respiratory system. Tests for embryotoxic activity in animals has been inconclusive. Rats exposed to very high airborne levels have exhibited high frequency hearing deficits. The significance of this to man is unknown. Has been toxic to the fetus in laboratory animals at doses that are toxic to the mother.
    Cumene
    WARNING: This chemical is known to the State of California to cause cancer.
    Diisobutyl ketone
    The following medical conditions may be aggravated by exposure: asthma, blood, dermatitis. Contact may cause skin irritation with discomfort or rash. Repeated exposure may cause allergic skin rash, itching, swelling. This substance may cause damage to any of the following organs/systems: eyes, kidneys, liver. Extremely high oral and inhalation doses in laboratory animals have shown weight changes in various organs such as the liver, kidney, brain, heart and adrenal gland. In addition liver
    and kidney injury were observed at the extremely high inhalation level. In another inhalation study there was a slight depression in the white blood cell count. Liquid or vapor causes irritation, experienced as stinging, excess blinking and tear production, with excess redness and swelling of the conjuctiva.
    Ethanol, 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)-
    Increased susceptibility to the effects of this material may be observed in people with preexisting disease of any of the following: central nervous system, eyes, kidneys, liver, skin. Tests in laboratory animals have shown effects on any of the following organs/systems: blood, kidneys, liver. Recurrent overexposure may result in liver and kidney injury. High doses in laboratory animals have shown non specific effects such as irritation, weight loss, moderate blood changes. Eye contact may cause any of
    the following: severe irritation, burns, corneal injury.


    Ethylbenzene
    Is an IARC, NTP or OSHA carcinogen. Increased susceptibility to the effects of this material may be observed in people with preexisting disease of any of the following: central nervous system, kidneys, liver, lungs. Recurrent overexposure may result in liver and kidney injury. Studies in laboratory animals have shown reproductive, embryotoxic and developmental effects. WARNING: This chemical is known to the State of California to cause cancer.

    Methyl ethyl ketone
    Material is irritating to mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. Increased susceptibility to the effects of this material may be observed in people with preexisting disease of any of the following: central nervous system, eyes, respiratory system, skin. Prolonged or repeated overexposure may cause any of the following: conjunctivitis, dermatitis. High concentrations have caused embryotoxic effects in laboratory animals. Aspiration may occur during swallowing or vomiting, resulting in
    lung damage. Ingestion may cause headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and drowsiness.
    Trixylenyl phosphate
    Has produced nervous system effects (such as weakness and tremors) in studies on laboratory animals.
    Vm&p naphtha
    Increased susceptibility to the effects of this material may be observed in people with preexisting disease of any of the following: central nervous system, kidneys, liver, lungs, respiratory system, skin. This substance may cause damage to any of the following organs/systems: central nervous system, kidneys, liver, lungs, skin and eyes. Material may be harmful or fatal if swallowed.
    Xylene
    Increased susceptibility to the effects of this material may be observed in people with preexisting disease of any of the following: bone marrow, cardiovascular system, central nervous system, kidneys, liver, lungs. Recurrent overexposure may result in liver and kidney injury. High exposures may produce irregular heart beats. Canada classifies Xylene as a developmental toxin as high exposures to xylenes in some animal studies have been reported to cause health effects on the developing fetus/embryo. These effects were often at levels toxic to the adult animal. The significance of these effects to humans is not known. Repeated or prolonged skin contact may cause any of the following: irritation, dryness, cracking of the skin.



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    -

    Chapter 20:

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)


    ------

     Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)


    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is a transparent thermoplastic, often used as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass. Although it is not technically a type of glass, the substance has sometimes historically been called acrylic glass. Chemically, it is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poly%28methyl_methacrylate%29

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    Cardiovascular Effects of Polymethylmethacrylate Use in Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    http://www.ajnr.org/content/23/4/601.full

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     SCREENING OF PLASTIC TOYS
    FOR CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND HAZARDS


     In February 2005 113 samples of plastic toys were sampled to obtain an indication of the used materials and additives. Selection of the samples was based on about three criterions. The sample existed partly or entirely of plastic. In addition it was judged if whether or not it was expected that the toy would be given to children under the age of three and if it was likely that this group of children would chew and suck on the toy. The main part of the samples (73%) originated from China. Bath and teething toys were the largest group, because of the possibility of mouthing by children.



    Polyvinylchloride (PVC, 25%) and acrylonitril butadiene styrene co-polymer (ABS, 23%) were found frequently. PVC is often found in the soft parts of the toys, ABS in the hard parts. In addition, the polyolefines such as polyethylene (PE, 8%) en polypropylene (PP, 13%) were often found. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) was found in 10% of the samples, often in the soft parts of (cooling) teething rings. Other plastics that were found are cispoly (isoprene), i.e., natural rubber, and co-polymers with styrene (except for ABS).

    In total 285 different migrants were found in the screening. The following groups of additives were found: monomers, oligomers, intermediates, antioxidants, compounds for dyes and inks, flame retardants, plasticisers, lubricants, UV-stabilisers and agents for vulcanisation. Several decomposition products, by -products or impurities were found also.


    Several (groups of) compounds can be appointed as a chemical hazard category: bisphenol A, phenol, nonylphenol, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, phthalates, plasticisers in general, nitrosamines / nitrosatable substances and primary aromatic amines, due to their toxicological profile and their frequency of occurrence. These hazard
    categories are eligible for further research. The diisocyanates and the styrene dimers and trimers may form a hazard also. Due to their occurrences in this screening or the limited literature available about their toxicology, it
    is advisable to follow the development in these groups closely, instead of performing further research.


     www.vwa.nl/txmpub/files/?p_file_id=11243
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Assessment of toxic metals and phthalates in children's toys and clays.


    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23780492

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Phthalates in Toys

    http://www.cseindia.org/userfiles/cselab_report_toxictoys.pdf




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    -

    Chapter 21:

    Zytel


    -------------

    Zytel

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zytel

    Zytel is a trademark owned by DuPont and used for a number of different high strength, abrasion and impact resistant thermoplastic polyamide formulations of the family more commonly known as nylon, often with varying degrees of fiberglass, from 13% to 60%, added in for additional stiffness. Some of the grades are homopolymer nylon66, other copolymers with nylon6 repeat units, and further grades involving rubber toughening are available. Many grades are based on polyphthalamide (PPA), another common polyamide.


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Zytel, a trademark thermoplastic polyamide by Dupont. This plastic made by DuPont, is being used in many toys, folding knives, roller blades, pellet gun frames, pellet gun grips, including paintball guns. Many of these plastics can be found in many hunting and sporting activity equipment. We should phase out this type of hazardous plastic made from DuPont, that is being used in many products. There's many options that can replace the Zytel found in many of the consumer products that we see. We can build better, more environmentally friendly biopolymers and bioplastics, that do not contain hazardous polymers that children touch. 



    We should be cautious of companies such as DuPont, that continue to market many synthetic materials and plastics that do not biodegrade properly. The people of this planet do not want to allow companies such as DuPont, to try and give the people of this planet a bad name, for the type of pollution being caused from many of the synthetic materials manufactured by different companies. The people demand viable, environmentally friendly polymers, and not these hazardous thermoplastics made from DuPont. There's environmentally friendly versions of nylon that we could be using, over the current petrochemicals used to manufacture nylon. 

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Bio-Plastics Could Replace Up to 90% of Plastics, But Not in Short Term 

    http://www.treehugger.com/green-architecture/bio-plastics-could-replace-up-to-90-of-plastics-but-not-in-short-term.html


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    It is often debated if we should ban certain types of fiberglass, including thermoplastics such as Zytel. We should phase out the use of Zytel, in many products out on the market currently. We should concentrate on creating an environmentally friendly version of fiberglass, including an environmentally friendly version of plastics that are similar to Zytel. These types of fibers could be made with many types of alternative ingredients that could potentially contain plant material, cellulose, carbon, alloys, nano-technologies or a silicone type substance.

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    -

    Chapter 22:

    Powder coatings

    -


    DuPont Colorsplash 
    by Prismatic Powders

    DuPont Industrial Coating Solutions has entered into a partnership with Prismatic Powders®, a division of NIC Industries, Inc. to market and sell a unique segment of their powder coatings under the brand DuPont TM Colorsplash TM by Prismatic ®. 
     applications:
    Automotive wheels
    Bicycle and motorcycle finishes
    (firearms)

    http://www2.dupont.com/Powder/en_US/assets/downloads/literature/Colorsplash_Flyer.pdf

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     http://www.cerakoteguncoatings.com/
    resources/files/P-202.pdf

    Manufacturer
    NIC Industries, Inc

    Product name: Arctic Black

    GHS Classifications:
    Health, Acute toxicity, 4 Oral
    Health, Acute toxicity, 4 Dermal
    Health, Skin corrosion/irritation, 2
    Health, Serious Eye Damage/Eye Irritation, 2 B
    Health, Acute toxicity, 4 Inhalation
    Health, Specific target organ toxicity - Single exposure, 3
    Health, Germ cell mutagenicity, 1
    Health, Reproductive toxicity, 1
    Health, Specific target organ toxicity - Single exposure, 1
    GHS Phrases:
    H302 - Harmful if swallowed
    H312 - Harmful in contact with skin
    H315 - Causes skin irritation
    H320 - Causes eye irritation
    H332 - Harmful if inhaled
    H335 - May cause respiratory irritation
    H340 - May cause genetic defects
    H360 - May damage fertility or the unborn child
    H370  - Causes damage to organ

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    We need more alternatives to many of the current toxic powder coatings out on the market. We need to ban certain powder coatings such as Cerakote, in the use of any newly manufactured goods. We need to work together as a civilization to create more sustainable and environmentally friendly coatings. 

    Do not buy any products that are sprayed with Cerakote finishes. These coatings remain to be in question of causing harm in humans, including harm to the environment. Cerakote is being linked to genetic defects. Cerakote may damage fertility or the unborn child, including causing damage to organs.


    It is often difficult to find products with environmentally friendly powder coatings. Many products contain hazardous powder coatings from companies such as DuPont. This is why many people prefer natural metal finishes or environmentally friendly coatings, over many of the current synthetic powder coatings on the market. 

    We should phase out harmful chemicals, such as the use of formaldehyde, in many laminates used for wood products. Many question if a natural type of Carnauba wax (palm wax) or a (coconut wax mix), could be sustainable for laminates in many types of wood. There is also an ethical debate on how palm wax is harvested from certain rainforest areas currently.


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    -

    Chapter 23:

    Hexavalent chromium


    -----------------


    Hexavalent chromium

    -

     We should even be cautious over chemicals such as Hexavalent chromium, found in chrome plating. 
     
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    COMBUSTION HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT FOR DUPONT DOW 
    ELASTOMERS,  L.L.C. LAPLACE, LOUISIANA




    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
    Dupont Dow Elastomers, L.L.C., Pontchartrain (DuPont) applied to the LDEQ for a RCRA permit to burn hazardous waste in a BIF unit at their facility located in LaPlace, Saint John the Baptist Parish, Louisiana. In order to assist LDEQ in identifying any additional permit conditions which might be necessary to ensure
    protection of human health, EPA has conducted this risk assessment. This assessment evaluates those potential emissions from one RCRA point source at the Dupont facility, a halogen acid furnace (HAF), as well as potential fugitive emissions associated with the RCRA facility operations.
     Waste Feed and/or Emission Rates:
      
    Metals of concern

    Antimony
    Arsenic
    Barium
    Beryllium
    Cadmium 
    Hexavalent chromium
    Lead
    Mercury
    Nickel
    Selenium
    Zinc

     http://www.epa.gov/region6/6pd/rcra_c/pd-o/projects/dupont_report.pdf


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Boy’s death uncovers toxic contamination, offsite dumping at Willits Remco plant



    State reviews 50 ppb standard
    EPA and State standards for total chromium in drinking water are 100 ppb and 50 ppb respectively. But EPA under former President Clinton had admitted those standards were established based on exposures for adult males--not for children, women, the elderly, or those with illnesses or disabilities. Those standards also were based on an assumption that only a small percentage of total chromium would be chromium 6. That assumption has not proven true, and chromium 6 has constituted as much as 100 percent of total chromium in some tests.


    4800 communities throughout California were ordered to begin testing for chromium 6 this year. Tests announced have revealed chromium 6 levels at 54 ppb in Los Angeles, 38 ppb in La Selva Beach, 22 ppb in Riverside and San Bernardino, 18 ppb in Santa Barbara, 23 ppb in Yolo County, 10 ppb in Solano, and 4.1 ppb in Santa Clara, according to California Water Association reports.



    The Remco plant in Willits is one of 72 toxic sites around the country owned by Whitman Corporation, (see www.whitmancorp.com), now known as PepsiAmericas, Inc., owners of Midas Mufflers, Pepsi, Mountain Dew, Aquafina, Ocean Spray juices, Tropicana, So-Be drinks, and Quaker Oats foods, and a division of DuPont also affiliated with PepsiCo and Frito-Lay.


    http://www.earthspeak.org/

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     Cancer-Causing Hexavalent Chromium In Tap Water For 89% Of US Sampled Cities -

    http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/212079.php


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    With new technology, we are now able to produce more environmentally friendly ways to produce chrome plating, instead of using hexavalent chromium.  

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Functional Chrome Coatings Electrodeposited from a Trivalent Chromium Plating Electrolyte -


     Innovation and Benefits: Chrome plating in many high-performance uses, such as some aircraft parts, still requires hexavalent chromium, a carcinogen, to achieve the necessary performance. Various chrome-free replacements have limitations that preclude widespread adoption. Faraday has developed a plating process that allows high-performance chrome coatings to be made from the less toxic trivalent chromium. This nearly drop-in replacement can reduce millions of pounds of hexavalent chromium without comprising performance. - http://www2.epa.gov/green-chemistry/2013-small-business-award

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    There's many types of potential environmentally friendly powder coatings and finishes, if mixed with non-toxic ingredients. 



     Powdered metal coatings-  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Powdered_metal

    -

    Bluing (steel) - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluing_%28steel%29

    -
    Brushed or dull polished metal  - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brushed_metal

    -

     Physical vapor deposition (PVD) - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_vapor_deposition

    (We should be cautious of certain hazardous synthetic polymers that could be added to powder coatings, such as PVD coatings, including any type of powder coating. We should phase out PVC, including teflon, found in different metal finishes, including electroless nickel finishes. ) 


    -

    Electroless nickel plating - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroless_nickel_plating



    --

      It could be possible to have the whole planet use environmentally friendly powder coatings, including environmentally friendly metal finishes and anodizing. Many companies such as DuPont, continue to add harmful chemicals to paints and coatings, in order to make a profit. We should be cautious of certain chemicals found in FBE coatings.

    -------------------

    Fusion bonded epoxy coating


    Fusion bonded epoxy coating, also known as fusion-bond epoxy powder coating and commonly referred to as FBE coating, is an epoxy-based powder coating that is widely used to protect steel pipe used in pipeline construction, concrete reinforcing bars (rebar) and on a wide variety of piping connections, valves etc.  FBE coatings are thermoset polymer coatings.

    The world's leading FBE manufacturers are Valspar, KCC Corporation, Jotun Powder Coatings, Sherwin-Williams, 3M, DuPont, Akzo Nobel, SolEpoxy, BASF and Rohm & Haas.

    The resin and hardener part together is known as the "Binder". As the name indicates, in Fusion bonded epoxy coatings the resin part is an "epoxy" type resin. “Epoxy” or “Oxirane” structure contains a three membered cyclic ring — one oxygen atom connected to two carbon atoms - in the resin molecule. This part is the most reactive group in the epoxy resins. Most commonly used FBE resins are derivatives of bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin. However, other types of resins (for example bisphenol F type) are also commonly used in FBE formulations to achieve various properties, combinations or additions.

     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusion_bonded_epoxy


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    We should be cautious of certain polyimides now being used in copper laminates manufactured by DuPont.      

    --

    DuPont™Pyralux®AP-PLUS



    DuPont is extending its portfolio of all-polyimide copper-clad laminates with Pyralux ®AP-PLUS.


    http://www2.dupont.com/Pyralux/en_US/assets/downloads/pdf/Pyralux_AP-Plus_DataSheet.pdf



    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -

     Chapter 24:


    Dupont, Syngenta & Bilderberg


    ----------


    Dupont, Syngenta & Bilderberg

    -

    Syngenta International & Bilderberg


    Leaked attendee list Bilderberg Conference June 3-6, 2010.



    GBR Taylor, J. Martin Chairman, Syngenta International AG



    http://bilderbergconferences.com/dolce-hotel-2010-location-sitges-spain/leaked-attendee-list-bilderberg-conference-june-3-6-2010-in-hotel-dolce-sitges-spain/


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Bilderberg’s Syngenta Settles After Contaminating U.S. Water Supply With Herbicide -


    http://mn-news-hound.tumblr.com/post/24045950106/bilderbergs-syngenta-settles-after-contaminating-u-s

     ------------------------------------------------------------------------

     Kerry and Monsanto: Sleeps With Wolves -

    http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/2004/Kerry-Monsanto-Notmilk2feb04.htm

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     U.S. Sen. John Kerry (D-Mass.) is on the guest list for this year's annual Bilderberg conference being held near Dulles International Airport - 

    http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/05/31/bilderberg-2012-global-le_n_1558788.html


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


     E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., General Motors -



    Another prominent Bilderberg attendee was Lammot du Pont Copeland, President of E.I. du Pont de Nemours Inc. (1962-1967). Read about other Bilderberg participants =>

    http://www.scribd.com/doc/32723303/Portraits-of-Bilderberg-Meetings-Participants


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    DuPont & General Motors

    ----------------------------------------------

    DuPont, Lammot

    Lammot du Pont II was the third person to serve as chairman of the board for the
    General Motors Corporation. He joined the General Motors board of directors in 1918 and assumed the position of president on February 7, 1929, succeeding his brother, Pierre S. du Pont. He served in this capacity for over eight years until Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. was elected to that position by the board of directors. Du Pont continued to serve on the General Motors board until 1946.

    During the time he held the highest position at General Motors, Lammot du Pont also led his family’s business, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, serving as its president. He later served as chairman of the board for that company from 1940 to 1948.

     http://history.gmheritagecenter.com/wiki/index.php/DuPont,_Lammot




    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethyl_Corporation

    Ethyl Corporation

    Founded in 1923, Ethyl Corp was formed by General Motors and Standard Oil of New Jersey (Esso). General Motors had the "use patent" for tetraethyllead (TEL) as an antiknock, based on the work of Thomas Midgley, Jr. and Charles Allen Thomas, :340-41 and Esso had the patent for the manufacture of TEL. Since the patents affected the marketing of TEL, General Motors and ESSO formed Ethyl Corp; each parent company had a 50% stake in the new corporation. Since neither company had chemical plant experience, they hired Dupont to operate the manufacturing facilities. After patents ran out, Dupont started manufacture of TEL on their own, and Ethyl started running its own operations.

    In 1962, Albemarle Paper Manufacturing Company, in Richmond, borrowed $200 million and purchased Ethyl Corporation (Delaware), a corporation 13 times its size. Albemarle then changed its name to Ethyl Corporation. It is believed that General Motors thought to divest itself of "Ethyl Corporation," owing to concern about liabilities of TEL. The 1962 transaction was the largest leveraged buyout until that time.


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Is your car toxic? -

    http://www.cartalk.com/content/your-car-toxic-3

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Researchers Name New Cars with the Most Toxic Interior Materials -

     CNET says, “These chemicals are used to make plastics flexible, make fabrics fire-resistant, and contribute to that ‘new car smell.’ But they're also associated with birth defects, impaired learning, liver toxicity, and cancer.”

    Year        Manufacturer       Model

    2012      Mini Cooper -     S. Clubman

    2012      VW -                   Eos

    2011      KIA  -                 Sportage

    2011      Chevy -              Aveo 5

    2012      Hyundai              Accent

    2011      Mazda                CX-7

    2011      Nissan                Versa

    2011      KIA                    Soul

    2011     Chrysler              200 SC

    2011     Mitsubishi           Outlander SP

    “The good news is overall vehicle ratings are improving,” the Ecology Center says. “The best vehicles today have eliminated hazardous flame retardants and PVC. Today, 17 percent of new vehicles have PVC-free interiors and 60 percent are produced without BFRs.”

    http://usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/cars-trucks/best-cars-blog/2012/02/Researchers_Name_New_Cars_with_the_Most_Toxic_Interior_Materials/

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    New-Car Smell: Find out How Toxic the Interior of Your New Car is -

    http://www.ibtimes.com/new-car-smell-find-out-how-toxic-interior-your-new-car-411220

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -

    Chapter 25:

    Diisocyanates


    ------


    Diisocyanates

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11763481

    Carcinogenic risk of toluene diisocyanate and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate: epidemiological and experimental evidence.



    Diisocyanates are highly reactive compounds widely used, for example, in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, paints, and adhesives. The high chemical reactivity of these compounds is also reflected in their toxicity: diisocyanates are one of the most important causes of occupational asthma but also other adverse effects, such as irritation and toxic reactions, have been described in exposed subjects. One of the open questions is whether occupational isocyanate exposure is a carcinogenic hazard.

    The few epidemiological studies available have been based on young cohorts and short follow-up and are not conclusive. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) has been classified as carcinogenic in animals on the basis of gavage administration studies, but no conclusions are available on inhalation exposure. For 4,4'-methylene diphenyldiisocyanate (MDI) there is suggestive evidence for carcinogenicity in rats.

    The possible carcinogenic mechanism of TDI and MDI is not clear. Both chemicals have been positive in a number of short-term tests inducing gene mutations and chromosomal damage. The reactive form could be either the diisocyanate itself or may derive from the metabolic activation of the aromatic diamine derivatives formed by hydrolysis. TDI and MDI react with DNA in vivo and in vitro. However, the structure of the adducts has not been identified. Especially from the in vivo experiment it is not known if the adducts are a product from the reaction with the isocyanate or the corresponding amine.

    In conclusion, both TDI and MDI are highly reactive chemicals that bind to DNA and are probably genotoxic. The alleged animal carcinogenicity of TDI and MDI would suggest that occupational exposure to these compounds is a carcinogenic risk. The few epidemiological studies available have not, however, been able to clarify if TDI and MDI are occupational carcinogens.


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Polymeric MDI

     Chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity study of respirable polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (polymeric MDI) aerosol in rats. -

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8005372



     ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



     http://www2.dupont.com/Tyvek_Weatherization/en_US/assets/downloads/pdfs/Tech%20Data%20Sheet%20Window%20&%20Door%20Foam.pdf

    DuPont Window & door foam 




    Warnings:

    DANGER! Contains modified polymeric MDI (proprietary), diphenylmethanediisocyanate (9016-87-9), tris(2-chloroisopropyl)
    phosphate (13674-84-5), dimethyl ether (115-10-6) and hydrocarbon propellant mixture. EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE.

    VAPOR AND SPRAY MIST HARMFUL. Gives off harmful vapor of solvents and isocyanates. EYE AND SKIN IRRITANT.
    Avoid contact with eyes and skin. Do not take internally. Intentional misuse by deliberately concentrating and inhaling the contents may be harmful or fatal.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------







    http://fscimage.fishersci.com/msds/98506.htm

    Material Safety Data Sheet trans-1,4-Cyclohexane diisocyanate, 97%




    Potential Health Effects


    Eye:
    Causes eye burns. Lachrymator (substance which increases the flow of tears). Skin: Causes skin burns. Toxic in contact with skin. Organic isocyanates can cause local irritation and allergic reactions.

    Ingestion: Poison by ingestion. Causes gastrointestinal tract burns.
    Inhalation: Causes chemical burns to the respiratory tract. Toxic if inhaled.
    Chronic: Repeated exposure may cause allergic respiratory reaction (asthma). Chronic overexposure to isocyanates has been reported to cause lung damage, including decreased lung fuction, which may be permanent.


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Trans-Cyclohexanediisocyanate (CHDI) 
     
    http://www2.dupont.com/Polymer_Specialties/en_US/products/chdi.html

    DuPont™ CHDI

    Handling
    " CHDI, like most isocyanates, is toxic. Refer to the MSDS before use. "



    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    http://msds.dupont.com/msds/pdfs/EN/PEN_09004a2f800062cd.pdf

    DuPont(TM) T-CHDI
    6042CR Revised 3-MAY-2007


    CHDI TRANS-1,4-CYCLOHEXANE DIISOCYANATE


    Potential Health Effects


    INHALATION


    This substance is considered highly toxic by inhalation.
    Effects of overexposure may include: Irritation of the nose,
    throat and lungs with cough, difficulty breathing, or
    shortness of breath; an asthma-like reaction with shortness
    of breath, wheezing or cough which may occur after
    re-exposure to very low levels; or chronic impairment of
    pulmonary function. Other effects include: Fatality from
    gross overexposure.



    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    Trans-Cyclohexanediisocyanate (CHDI) -


    http://www2.dupont.com/Polymer_Specialties/en_US/assets/downloads/CHDI_Tech_Sheet_18march2010.pdf


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    PHOSGENE?  FREE  ROUTE  TO
     TOLUENE  DIISOCYANATE


    Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
    Senior Design Reports (CBE)
    http://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1015&context=cbe_sdr&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3DToluene-diisocyanate%2Bdupont%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D5%26cad%3Drja%26ved%3D0CEEQFjAE%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Frepository.upenn.edu%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D1015%2526context%253Dcbe_sdr%26ei%3DoQ32Ub_YJ5OC9gTjsYHwDA%26usg%3DAFQjCNHIdDdDrpCYxrNQx3j4RhyXn3BQSg#search=%22Toluene-diisocyanate%20dupont%22

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -

     Chapter 26:

    Sustainable living


    ---------

    We believe it is important for the well-being of the environment, for these companies to stop producing many harmful chemicals in a lot of consumer products.

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Many ancient civilizations had advanced methods in architecture. Many of these structures built thousands of years ago with natural fibers, are still around until this day. Only until recently, many new synthetic chemicals have been mass produced, and used in many homes. It is not sustainable to use many chemicals such as polymeric MDI, including PVC, in many homes. These chemicals cause pollution in water runoff.  Many people wonder why so many harmful chemicals have to be used in modern-day homes, when we could create a much better sustainable future for the children of this planet.

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    We should be building many houses from sustainable materials such as hempcrete.

    ---

    Hempcrete, Made From Hemp, Used To Build Houses - 

    http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/05/10/hempcrete-hemp-house_n_1506662.html

     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    Hempcrete - Hemp Building Materials - Hemp For Houses

    A hemp crop can be grown without the use of herbicides or insecticides and produces up to four tonnes of material per acre per year. Hemp is categorized as a bast fiber crop. It has a stem consisting of an outer skin containing long, strong fibers and a hollow wood-like core or pith. Processing the stems results in two materials: hurds and fibers, both of which have properties that make them extremely useful in building construction.

    A variety of wood-like products, such as fiberboard, roofing tiles, wallboard, paneling, insulation and bricks, can be made from the compressed hurds. The fibers can also be used like straw in bale wall construction or with mud in a sort of modified cob style of building.

     http://www.hemp.org/news/book/export/html/202




    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -

    Chapter 27:

    Genetically modified organisms & DuPont


    --------



    The OncoMouse


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oncomouse

    The OncoMouse or Harvard mouse is a type of laboratory mouse that has been genetically modified using modifications designed by Philip Leder and Timothy A Stewart of Harvard University to carry a specific gene called an activated oncogene (v-Ha-ras under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter). The activated oncogene significantly increases the mouse’s susceptibility to cancer, and thus makes the mouse suitable for cancer research. The rights to the invention were owned by DuPont until recently. The USPTO found that the patent expired in 2005, which means that the Oncomouse is now free for use by other parties (although the name is not, as "OncoMouse" is a registered trademark.


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    OncoMouse breeds controversy / Cancer researchers at odds with DuPont over fees for patents   - 

     http://www.sfgate.com/business/article/OncoMouse-breeds-controversy-Cancer-researchers-2814449.php

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Harvard’s US OncoMouse Patents are All Expired (For the Time Being)


    http://www.patentlyo.com/patent/2012/09/harvards-us-oncomouse-patents-are-all-expired-for-the-time-being.html

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Oncomouse or Harvard Mouse Patent Case
    Oncomouse or Harvard Mouse Patent Case

    http://1degreebio.org/blog/?bid=165

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

    GMOs: Not Just for Lab Rats Anymore!

    “Right to Know”

    As part of his public policy classes, Dr. Schildt utilized students to raise awareness, develop materials and collect signatures. The students, who chose this particular policy issue, made sure the initiative is about “right to know” rather than an indictment on GMOs. For some people, though, the issue is actually a “need to know.”

    Dr. Schildt explains, “There have been and continue to be the use of animal DNA in GMO-modified vegetables and fruit, such as arctic flounder DNA in tomatoes. If someone is a vegan or vegetarian, they should have the right to know that, when eating some piece of fruit or vegetable, they are also digesting a meat product.”

    - See more at: http://ireadculture.com/2012/05/news/buzz/gmos-not-just-for-lab-rats-anymore/#sthash.UEUfu1Rj.dpuf


    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Many researchers are concerned if the DNA of an animal such as the Oncomouse,  were to be genetically engineered by scientists and crossed with an edible plant, such as a tomato, that this would create a new species of plant. If animals or humans were to eat these plants contaminated with the Oncomouse DNA, it is possible that the animal or person eating the plant would develop cancer and possibly die.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Cre-Lox recombination


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cre-Lox_recombination


    In the field of genetics, Cre-Lox recombination is known as a site-specific recombinase technology, and is widely used to carry out deletions, insertions, translocations and inversions at specific sites in the DNA of cells. It allows the DNA modification to be targeted to a specific cell type or be triggered by a specific external stimulus. It is implemented both in eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems.

    The system consists of a single enzyme, Cre recombinase, that recombines a pair of short target sequences called the Lox sequences. This system can be implemented without inserting any extra supporting proteins or sequences. The Cre enzyme and the original Lox site called the LoxP sequence are derived from bacteriophage P1.

    Placing Lox sequences appropriately allows genes to be activated, repressed, or exchanged for other genes. At a DNA level many types of manipulations can be carried out. The activity of the Cre enzyme can be controlled so that it is expressed in a particular cell type or triggered by an external stimulus like a chemical signal or a heat shock. These targeted DNA changes are useful in cell lineage tracing and when mutants are lethal if expressed globally.



    Cre-Lox recombination is a special type of site-specific recombination developed by Dr. Brian Sauer initially for use in activating gene expression in mammalian cell lines and transgenic mice (DuPont).


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2530587

    Cloning the interleukin 1 receptor from human T cells.

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    Isolation and characterization of a human interleukin cDNA clone, homologous to mouse B-cell stimulatory factor 1, that expresses B-cell- and T-cell-stimulating activities.



    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3016727


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -

    Chapter 28:

    Silicon & Silicon dioxide

    ----


     URS Awarded Contract Extension at Monsanto Silica Quarry in Idaho

    http://www.urscorp.com/Press_Releases/pressRelsTradeDet.php?i=599

    SAN FRANCISCO, CA —  April 1, 2013 —  URS Corporation has been awarded a contract by P4 Production LLC, a subsidiary of Monsanto Company, to provide contract mining and maintenance services at the company’s silica rock quarrying operation in Soda Springs, Idaho. The contract is an extension of URS’ current contract at the site, and is effective January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2017.



    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Monsanto's original patent on Syton colloidal silica covered anti-slip container paper treatment - http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/cen-v044n040.p067


    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Silica AeroGels

    The First Commercial Aerogel

    Samuel Kistler never seemed to pass up an opportunity to commercialize his inventions, and aerogels were no exception. In the early 1940's he completed a licence agreement with the Monsanto Corp. for the production of silica aerogel. Monsanto began production in a plant in Everett, Massachusetts, and sold products for many years under the trade names "Santocel", "Santocel-C", "Santocel-54", and "Santocel-Z".

    Production of Silica Aerogel

    The process consists of adding a solution of sodium silicate to sulphuric acid.


    http://energy.lbl.gov/ecs/aerogels/kistler-early.html

     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Use of Silicon Dioxide in Food


    http://foodadditives.centerblog.net/208-the-use-of-silicon-dioxide-in-food

    Silicon dioxide food safety is of prime concern especially when it is used as an additive. SiO2, added as an anti-caking agent to a food product is not safe when the SiO2 quantity is more than 2 percent of the foodchem food’s weight. More specifically, for SiO2 to be safe, it should be made by a process known as vapor phase hydrolysis. If it is manufactured by any other process, then the recommended particle size of SiO2 should not exceed the safety norms. Supplements having over 2 percent of silicon dioxide are also not considered to be safe for consumption. Silicon dioxide when added externally to food in the right amount, can produce the intended effects, otherwise it may lead to severe health problems. On the whole, dietary silica has gained an important status in the diet as it is known to maintain bone growth.



    ----------------------------------------------------------
      Silicon Nanocrystals Map Location of Spreading Tumors -



    http://nano.cancer.gov/action/news/2011/jan/nanotech_news_2011-01-14a.asp


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Silicon is a very interesting substance. In many ways Silicon is good, and silicone could replace many of the current plastics out on the market. Silicone can be also harmful if synthesized and used improperly.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Silicone Toxicology


    Scope and Criteria for the Toxicology Review


    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK44789/
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Silicone Holocaust -


    http://siliconeholocaust.info/


    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


     Silicone derived emollients

     http://www.hallgold.com/toxic-chemical-ingredients-directory.htm#silicone



     Silicone emollients are occlusive - that is they coat the skin, trapping anything
    beneath it, and do not allow the skin to breathe (much like plastic wrap would do.)
    Recent studies have indicated that prolonged exposure of the skin to sweat, by
    occlusion, causes skin irritation. Some synthetic emollients are known tumour promoters and accumulate in the liver and lymph nodes. They are also non-biodegradable, causing negative environmental impact.

    Dimethicone

    Dimethicone Copolyol

    Cyclomethicone

    Silicone was and still is used as breast implants. Tens of thousands of women with
    breast implants have complained of debilitating symptoms. Anecdotal evidence indicates silicone to be toxic to the human body. For more detailed information on the dangers of silicone simply key "silicone toxicity" into the a search engine.


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Is Silicone Bakeware Really Safe?


    Many silicone baking mats are actually made of fiberglass covered on both sides with silicone, so unless you want to risk fiberglass in your food, don’t cut on the mats!

    http://green.yourway.net/is-silicone-bakeware-really-safe/


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Silicone Cookware - The Things You Need To Know!


    Silicone cookware draws on one of its advantages (and coincidentally one of its disadvantages) - its flexibility - for its success. You can also use this feature to determine whether the item is 100% silicone or if it contains "filler" as do many low quality silicone products. By twisting the silicone check the ridges for signs of white stretching which indicates that filling materials have been used. If the colour remains constant, you have in your hands some high quality silicone! This initial check is important for several reasons besides checking you are getting what you pay for Although 100% silicone is non-stick, these filling materials may not be. All the time and effort you put into baking the perfect cakes (and indeed the reason you selected silicone in the first place) may be in vein if the baked goods stick to the pan due to these fillers.

    http://www.squidoo.com/silicone-kitchenware


    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The nanosilica hazard: another variable entity


    Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are produced on an industrial scale and are an addition to a growing number of commercial products. SNPs also have great potential for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications in medi-
    cine. Contrary to the well-studied crystalline micron-sized silica, relatively little information exists on the toxicity of its amorphous and nano-size forms. Because nanoparticles possess novel properties, kinetics and unusual bioactiv-ity, their potential biological effects may differ greatly from those of micron-size bulk materials. In this review, we summarize the physico-chemical properties of the different nano-sized silica materials that can affect their interac-tion with biological systems, with a specific emphasis on inhalation exposure. We discuss recent
    in vitro and in vivo investigations into the toxicity of nanosilica, both crystalline and amorphous. Most of the
    in vitro studies of SNPs report results of cellular uptake, size- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity, increased reactive oxygen species levels and pro-inflammatory stimulation. Evidence from a limited number of
    in vivo studies demonstrates largely reversi-ble lung inflammation, granuloma formation and focal emphysema, with no progressive lung fibrosis. Clearly, more research with standardized materials is needed to enable comparison of experimental data for the different forms of nanosilicas and to establish which physico-chemical properties are responsible for the observed toxicity of SNPs.

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Comparison of cytotoxic and inflammatory responses of photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles with silicon micron-sized particles in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18785685

     


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -

    Chapter 29:

    Electronic cigarette hazards & cigarettes


    --------

    Watch out, e-cigarette smokers – you're inhaling the unknown


    A quick search of medical journal archives reveals about 200 references to electronic cigarettes over the past five years. These products are relatively new, so there are no long-term studies on the effects of using them regularly. Instead, research is focused on what is being delivered to smokers' lungs in addition to nicotine.
    The US Food and Drug Administration analysed the components of e-cigarette cartridges in 2009. They identified trace levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) – cancer-causing compounds commonly found in traditional cigarettes, albeit at a much lower concentration.
    Although concerning, this isn't a huge surprise – similar levels are found in nicotine patches. But the FDA also found diethylene glycol, a component of antifreeze and brake fluids. Classed as a poison by the World Health Organisation, at high enough quantities it can cause kidney damage, nerve dysfunction and respiratory failure.
    In March 2013, researchers from the University of California examined in detail the aerosol contents of e-cigarettes. They found particles of silver, iron, aluminium and silicate, and nanoparticles of tin, chromium and nickel.

     In March 2013, researchers from the University of California examined in detail the aerosol contents of e-cigarettes. They found particles of silver, iron, aluminium and silicate, and nanoparticles of tin, chromium and nickel. The researchers noted that concentrations of these elements "were higher than or equal to the corresponding concentrations in conventional cigarette smoke", and that "many of the elements identified in [e-cigarette] aerosol are known to cause respiratory distress and disease".

     http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/apr/03/e-cigarette-smokers-inhaling-unknown




    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Analysis Finds Toxic Substances in Electronic Cigarettes -

    http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/23/health/policy/23fda.html?_r=0

    The analysis found that several of the cartridges contained detectable levels of
    nitrosamines, tobacco-specific compounds known to cause cancer. One Smoking Everywhere cartridge was found to contain diethlyene glycol, a common ingredient in antifreeze that counterfeiters have substituted for glycerin in toothpaste, killing hundreds worldwide.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    People should be cautious of using certain types of E-cigarettes & vapor pens. Many of these vapor pens contain certain types of chemicals in the plastic components of the pen. When vapor pens heat up certain chemicals into smoke or vapor, this also reacts with the plastic components being heated in the pen. It is recommended to not use any current plastic products on the market currently for a smoking device, or for storing smoking products in.

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Why Some E-Liquids Crack Plastic Clearomizer Tanks


    http://cloudnine.hillarymilesproductions.com/electronic-cigarettes/why-
    some-e-liquids-crack-plastic-clearomizer-tanks/

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Electronic cigarettes 'could damage your lungs' as they cause less oxygen to be absorbed by the blood


    Presently E-cigarettes are made in China, but they are not properly regulated on how much nicotine they contain or on their safety quality.

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2197430/Electronic-cigarettes-damage-lungs-cause-oxygen-absorbed-blood.html


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Study says e-cigarettes may contain carcinogens similar to regular cigarettes



     For smokers trying to kick their habit, or at least reduce health risks, e-cigarettes appeared to provide a desirable third way, allowing smokers to get their nicotine fixes while avoiding most of the health risks commonly associated with smoking, including cancer.

    However, a report released in France’s National Consumer Institute magazine on Monday says that many e-cigarettes actually contain "a significant quantity of carcinogenic molecules."

    According to the study, researchers found that 3 in 10 e-cigarettes contain levels of formaldehyde and acrolein that are nearly equal to levels found in standard cigarettes.

    http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/sideshow/-study-says-e-cigarettes-contain-carcinogens-similar-to-regular-cigarettes--205045093.html

    -----------------------------


    E-Cigs Emit Higher Levels of Chromium and Nickel Than Traditional Cigarettes


     http://viterbi.usc.edu/news/news/2014/e-cigarettes-emit-higher-levels-of-some-toxic-metals-than-traditional-cigarettes-chromium-nickel.htm
    -----------------------

    Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposures associated with cigarette smoking: implications for risk assessment of food and flavoring workers

    http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/10408444.2014.882292


    --------------------------------

     Electronic Smoking Devices and Secondhand Aerosol

    http://no-smoke.org/pdf/ecigarette-secondhand-aerosol.pdf

    -------------------------------


    FDA and Public Health Experts Warn About Electronic Cigarettes

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today announced that a laboratory analysis of electronic cigarette samples has found that they contain carcinogens and toxic chemicals such as diethylene glycol, an ingredient used in antifreeze.

    http://www.fda.gov/%20NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm173222.htm



    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    DuPont workers smoke Teflon-laced cigarettes in company experiments

    http://www.ewg.org/research/dupont-workers-smoke-teflon-laced-cigarettes-company-experiments



    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Chemicals in Tobacco Smoke -

    http://www.tricountycessation.org/tobaccofacts/Cigarette-Ingredients.html

    There are over 4,000 chemicals in tobacco smoke and at least 69 of those chemicals are known to cause cancer.

    The list of 599 additives approved by the US Government for use in the manufacture of cigarettes is something every smoker should see. Submitted by the five major American cigarette companies to the Dept. of Health and Human Services in April of 1994, this list of ingredients had long been kept a secret.


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




    Tobacco is used in many sacred rituals in the Native American culture, including
    different cultures around the world. It appears that many companies are trying to
    tamper with many herbs and plants, by adding too many undesirable chemicals for human and animal consumption.


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -

    Chapter 30:

    DuPont & Danisco


    --------

    DuPont & Danisco

    On January 9, 2011, DuPont announced that it had reached a definitive agreement to buy Danish company Danisco for US $6.3 billion. On May 16, 2011, DuPont announced that its tender offer for Danisco had been successful and that it would proceed to redeem the remaining shares and delist the company. In February 2013, DuPont Performance Coatings was sold to the Carlyle Group and rebranded as Axalta Coating Systems. On May 1, 2012, DuPont announced that the company has acquired from Bunge full ownership of the Solae, LLC joint venture, a soy-based ingredients company (www.solae.com) . DuPont previously owned 72 percent of the joint venture while Bunge owned the remaining 28 percent.


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DuPont


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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    -

     Chapter 31:

    Phytosterols


    ----------


     Dupont (Danisco): Product range: Phytosterols

    http://www.danisco.com/product-range/phytosterol/


    -------------------------------------------------------------------


    From Soybean Phytosterols to 
             Steroid Hormones

    Soybean phytosterols and human health 

    Phytosterols are a group of steroid alcohols that occur naturally in plants. They are generally isolated during the process of producing vegetable oils, especially soybean oil. Soybean oil deodorizer distillate (SODD) is one main wastes of the soybean-processing process. It is rich in phytosterols and has become the main source of commercial phytosterols.
     http://www.intechopen.com/download/get/type/pdfs/id/19751

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Micronutrient Research for Optimum Health

    Phytosterols



    http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phytochemicals/sterols/

    Limited data from animal studies suggest that very high intakes of phytosterols, particularly sitosterol, may inhibit the growth of breast and prostate cancer. Only a few epidemiological studies have examined associations between dietary phytosterol intakes and cancer risk in humans because databases providing information on the phytosterol content of commonly consumed foods have only recently been developed. A series of case-control studies in Uruguay found that dietary phytosterol intakes were lower in people diagnosed with stomach, lung, or breast cancer than in cancer-free control groups. Case-control studies in the U.S. found that women diagnosed with breast or endometrial (uterine) cancer had lower dietary phytosterol intakes than women who did not have cancer. In contrast, another case-control study in the U.S. found that men diagnosed with prostate cancer had higher dietary campesterol intakes than men who did not have cancer, but total phytosterol consumption was not associated with prostate cancer risk. Although some epidemiological studies have found that higher intakes of plant foods containing phytosterols are associated with decreased cancer risk, it is not clear whether the protective factors are phytosterols or other compounds in plant foods.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    High intestinal cholesterol absorption is associated with cardiovascular disease and risk alleles in ABCG8 and ABO: evidence from the LURIC and YFS cohorts and from a meta-analysis.

    OBJECTIVES:

    This study sought to determine whether high intestinal cholesterol absorption represents a cardiovascular risk factor and to link ABCG8 and ABO variants to cardiovascular disease (CVD).

    BACKGROUND:

    Plant sterol-enriched functional foods are widely used for cholesterol lowering. Their regular intake yields a 2-fold increase in circulating plant sterol levels that equally represent markers of cholesterol absorption. Variants in ABCG8 and ABO have been associated with circulating plant sterol levels and CVD, thereby suggesting atherogenic effects of plant sterols or of cholesterol uptake.

    METHODS:

    The cholestanol-to-cholesterol ratio (CR) was used as an estimate of cholesterol absorption because it is independent of plant sterols. First, we investigated the associations of 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms in ABCG8 and ABO with CR in the LURIC (LUdwisghafen RIsk and Cardiovascular health study) and the YFS (Young Finns Study) cohorts. Second, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether CR might be related to CVD.

     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23707316


     -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Plant sterols and atherosclerosis.



    PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

    Plant sterols as ingredients to functional foods are recommended for lowering LDL cholesterol. However, there is an ongoing discussion whether the use of plant sterols is safe.

    RECENT FINDINGS:

    Genetic analyses showed that common variants of the ATP binding cassette transporter G8 (ABCG8) and ABO genes are associated with elevated circulating plant sterols and higher risk for cardiovascular disease. However, these data do not prove a causal role for plant sterols in atherosclerosis because the risk alleles in ABCG8 and ABO are also related to elevated total and LDL cholesterol levels. The ABO locus exhibits still further pleiotropy. Moreover, analyses in the general population indicated that moderately elevated circulating plant sterols are not correlated with present or future vascular disease. In agreement, novel studies using food frequency questionnaires, studies in experimental animals, and dietary intervention studies support that ingestion of plant sterols may be beneficial to cardiovascular health.
    SUMMARY:

    Taken together, current evidence supports the recommendations for the use of plant sterols as LDL cholesterol-lowering agents. Nevertheless, a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded, intervention trial conclusively showing that plant sterol supplementation will prevent hard cardiovascular endpoints is not available to date.


    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23165086

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Increased plasma levels of plant sterols and atherosclerosis: a controversial issue.


    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19664384

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Plant sterols in serum and in atherosclerotic plaques of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15936608

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Sterol transporters: targets of natural sterols and new lipid lowering drugs. -

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15737409



    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Effects of long term plant sterol and -stanol consumption on the retinal vasculature: A randomized controlled trial in statin users - 

    http://www.atherosclerosis-journal.com/article/S0021-9150%2810%2900892-0/abstract


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Too Much of a Good Thing? Dangers of Excessive Phytosterols


    http://www.bottomlinepublications.com/content/article/health-a-healing/too-much-of-a-good-thing-dangers-of-excessive-phytosterols















































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    -

    Chapter 32:


    Pesticides in drinking water


    -----



    3 pesticides singled out in report as threat to salmon

    http://www.seattlepi.com/local/article/3-pesticides-singled-out-in-report-as-threat-to-1282034.php

    -


    Basic Information about Glyphosate in Drinking Water -

    http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/glyphosate.cfm


    -----------------------



    Pesticides and Children’s Health

    http://www.emagazine.com/earth-talk/pesticides-and-childrens-health

    ----

    U.S. Drinking Water Widely Contaminated

    EPA finds 202 unregulated chemicals in 45 states

    A three-year study of the nation's drinking water quality has found more than 200 unregulated chemicals in the tap water of 45 states.

    The Environmental Working Group analysis of 20 million tap water quality tests found a total of 316 contaminants -- including industrial solvents, weed killers, refrigerants and the rocket fuel component perchlorate -- in water supplied to the public between 2004 and 2009.

    U.S. EPA regulates 114 of those pollutants, setting maximum legal levels that water utilities achieved 92 percent of the time, according to the study.

    EWG frets that the remaining chemicals, which have no mandatory federal safety standards, can come in potentially toxic combinations for long-term consumption.

    https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/tap-drinking-water-contaminants-pollutants/

    ------

    Where Did Our Water Go? Trading Public Water Fountains for Private Bottled Water


     http://www.huffingtonpost.com/peter-h-gleick/where-did-our-water-go-tr_b_691926.html 

    --------


    Official Trailer: Bottled Life - The Truth about Nestlé's Business with Water 


    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=czfSwjx4yYA


    ----



    Sickening: Major food corporations use tissue from aborted babies to manufacture flavor additives in processed foods

     

     (NaturalNews) Every time you purchase mass-produced processed "food" from the likes of Kraft, PepsiCo, or Nestle, you're choosing, whether you realize it or not, to feed your family not only genetically engineered poisons and chemical additives, but also various flavoring agents manufactured using the tissue of aborted human babies.

     http://www.naturalnews.com/049367_aborted_babies_flavor_chemicals_food_corporations.html

    -----



    On The Edge By Anthony Giddens -

    http://books.google.com/books?id=HBDDxv0TkoYC&pg=PT44&lpg=PT44dq=Monsanto+Buying+Water+Monopolies+mexico+india&source=bl&ots=ny2grlphnq&sig=gNiwnPJ2X0lV_9BpibUEPgTokvc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=aGWpUf7tIuX4yQGup4CYBw&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAg





    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------


    -

    Chapter 33:

    GMOs


    -------

     GMOs Now Linked to Leukemia

    http://foodfreedomgroup.com/2013/07/17/gmos-now-linked-to-leukemia/



    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    There's conflicting reports if GMO's are linked to causing leukemia.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    GMOs cause leukemia!? Think again.


    http://www.biofortified.org/2013/05/leukemia/



    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    19 Studies Suggest Link Between GMO Foods and Serious Organ Damage

     http://www.organicauthority.com/blog/organic/19-studies-suggest-link-between-gmo-foods-and-serious-organ-damage/



    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Next Frontier of GMOs Is Crops That Can Genetically Modify Insects Themselves





    There are three projects looking at RNAi’s potential in agriculture currently underway. They're all different, but the basic idea is to make crops capable of their own RNAi techniques—thus enabling a better defense against pests. So, yes: genetically modified crops are capable of genetically modifying insects.
    The most interesting of these are cotton plants that produce double-stranded RNA that suppresses a particular gene in bollworms. It silences the gene that codes for a certain chemical capable of degrading the cotton plants’ natural worm repellant. So, it weakens the worms’ countermeasures against the plant’s already-existing defenses.

     http://motherboard.vice.com/blog/the-next-frontier-of-gmos-is-crops-that-can-genetically-modify-insects-themselves



    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Illinois illegally seizes bees resistant to Roundup; kills remaining queens


    The Illinois Ag Dept.  illegally seized privately owned bees from renowned naturalist, Terrence Ingram, without providing him with a search warrant and before the court hearing on the matter, reports Prairie Advocate News.
    Behind the obvious violations of his Constitutional rights is Monsanto. Ingram was researching Roundup’s effects on bees, which he’s raised for 58 years.  “They ruined 15 years of my research,” he told Prairie Advocate, by stealing most of his stock.

     http://foodfreedomgroup.com/2012/05/22/illinois-illegally-seizes-bees-resistant-to-roundup-kills-remaining-queens/



     ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    "Bee-friendly" plants? Think again.




    The science is increasingly clear when it comes to neonics; they’ve been linked to massive bee kills and they can interfere with the brain functions that bees need to navigate, forage and reproduce. Especially in combination with other common pesticides — and factors like habitat loss and pathogens — neonics are a catalyst for bee declines.
    My colleague Emily Marquez, PhD, and PAN's staff scientist, put it like this:
    "Bees have enough troubles; there’s no need for home gardens to add to the problem. Studies indicate that widespread use of systemic pesticides like neonicotinoids is contributing to major bee kills around the globe. And even at doses that don’t kill bees, neonics weaken bee immune systems and impair critical brain functions, making it hard for bees to find their food sources and return to the hive.”

     http://www.panna.org/blog/bee-friendly-plants-think-again


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



     Gates, Monsanto, and Monopoly: Foundation Keeps Wealth in the Club - 

     http://www.gaia-health.com/articles351/000375-foundations-keep-wealth-in-the-club.shtml





    Top Level Gates Foundation Staff




    Sylvia Mathews Burwell, President, Global Development Program:

    She is also on the Board of Directors for MetLife and on the Board of the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), which seems to serve as a front for GMO seeds and receives the Gates Foundation's biggest grants(2). As if this weren't enough, she is also a member of the Aspen Strategy Group, the Trilateral Commission, and the Nike Foundation Advisory Group


    Franci Phelan, Chief Human Resources Officer, Foundation Operations:

    She was Vice President of Human Resources at Pioneer Hi-Bred International, a DuPont company. She was the Human Resources Platform Lead for DuPont Agriculture and Nutrition and was a member of the DuPont Corporate Human Resources Leadership Team

    Most of the senior officials of the Gates Foundation have strong ties to some of the most brazen corporations and pseudo-charities in the world. GlaxoSmithKline. Merck. The World Bank. DuPont. Nike. Trilateral Commission. AGRA. CitiBank.

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------


    Monsanto and Gates Foundation Push GE Crops on Africa -
    http://www.truth-out.org/news/item/2105:monsanto-and-gates-foundation-push-ge-crops-on-africa


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




























    Israeli agritech IPO could be first of a controversial wave 

     November 21, 2013

     

    Evogene offering may mark the beginning of a new tech era for Israel, as genetically modified foods become more prominent



    http://www.timesofisrael.com/topic/dupont-pioneer/



    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    Italy Becomes the 9th EU Nation To Ban Monsanto’s GMO Corn


    Read more http://www.trueactivist.com/italy-becomes-the-9th-eu-nation-to-ban-monsantos-gmo-corn/


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Monsanto's Hugh Grant sells $3 million worth of stock -


    http://www.bizjournals.com/stlouis/blog/2013/01/monsantos-hugh-grant-sells-3-million.html

     ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Environmental Review to Delay Two Engineered Crops

     Genetically engineered crops that could sharply increase the use of two powerful herbicides are now unlikely to reach the market until at least 2015 because the Department of Agriculture has decided to subject the crops to more stringent environmental reviews than it had originally intended. 

     

    The department said on Friday that it had made the decision after determining that approval of the crops “may significantly affect the quality of the human environment.”

     The crops in question are Dow Chemical’s corn and soybeans that would be resistant to the herbicide 2,4-D and Monsanto’s dicamba-resistant cotton and soybeans.


     http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/11/business/energy-environment/environmental-review-to-delay-two-engineered-crops.html?adxnnl=1&ref=monsantocompany&adxnnlx=1377367270-j9Jy1MXODTJ3V6Zd8FjDGw




    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    DuPont Says Wheat Yield May Jump 20% With Hybrid Creation -

    http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-02-26/dupont-says-wheat-yield-may-jump-20-with-hybrid-creation.html

    DuPont Co. (DD), the world’s second- largest seed company, said wheat yields would increase 15 percent to 20 percent if it can make a hybrid version of the world’s most planted grain.

    Those yield gains would occur with the first commercial product, expected in a decade or so, John Soper, a vice president of research at Wilmington, Delaware-based DuPont, said today in a telephone interview. The company is using conventional and biotechnology approaches to developing hybrid wheat, Soper said. DuPont, the largest U.S. chemical maker by market value, joins Basel-based Syngenta AG (SYNN) in pursuing ways to create wheat hybrids. About 500 million acres of wheat are planted globally each year, and “a hybrid wheat system would have access to a lot of it,” Soper said.


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    UPDATE 1-Monsanto unapproved GMO wheat stored in Colorado through '11


    (Reuters) - Monsanto Co's unapproved, experimental genetically engineered wheat, which is feared to have potentially contaminated U.S. wheat supplies after it was found growing in an Oregon field this spring, was kept in a U.S. government storage facility until at least late 2011, according to documents obtained by Reuters.
    The revelation that the seed for the controversial genetically engineered wheat was kept viable in a Colorado storage facility as recently as a year and a half ago comes as the U.S. government is investigating how the strain of experimental wheat wound up growing in an Oregon field this spring.

    http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/06/28/monsanto-wheat-idUSL2N0F40QR20130628

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Bayer Admits GMO Contamination is Out of Control -


    EXTRACT: Bayer has admitted it has been unable to control the spread of its
    genetically-engineered organisms despite 'the best practices [to stop
    contamination]'. It shows that all outdoors field trials or commercial growing of GE crops must be stopped before our crops are irreversibly contaminated.

    $2 million US dollar verdict against Bayer confirms company's liability for an
    uncontrollable technology

    Greenpeace welcomes the United States federal jury ruling on 4 December 2009 that Bayer CropScience LP must pay $2 million US dollars to two Missouri farmers after their rice crop was contaminated with an experimental variety of rice that the company was testing in 2006.

    This verdict confirms that the responsibility for the consequences of GE (genetic
    engineering) contamination rests with the company that releases GE crops.

    Bayer has admitted it has been unable to control the spread of its genetically-
    engineered organisms despite 'the best practices [to stop contamination]'. It shows that all outdoors field trials or commercial growing of GE crops must be stopped before our crops are irreversibly contaminated.

    http://www.organicconsumers.org/articles/article_19777.cfm


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    The Great Mexican Maize Massacre  -

    http://www.etcgroup.org/content/great-mexican-maize-massacre



    Agribusiness giants Monsanto, DuPont and Dow are plotting the boldest coup of a global food crop in history. If their requests to allow a massive commercial planting of genetically modified (GM) maize are approved in the next two weeks by the government of outgoing president Felipe Calderón, this parting gift to the gene giants will amount to a knife in the heart of the center of origin and diversity for maize. The consequences will be grave – and global. With the approvals and December planting deadlines looming, social movements and civil society organizations have called for an end to all GM maize in Mexico. Mexico’s Union of Concerned Scientists (UCCS) has called on the Mexican government to stop the processing of any application for open-field release of GM maize in Mexico. ETC Group joins these calls, and appeals to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) – intergovernmental bodies mandated to support food security and biodiversity – to take immediate action.



    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



     U.S. organic food industry fears GMO contamination

    http://www.reuters.com/article/2008/03/12/us-biotech-crops-contamination-idUSN1216250820080312

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    ‘We’re farming in a polluted world’: Even organic foods are not GMO-free, industry leaders say - 

    http://news.nationalpost.com/2013/02/13/organic-foods-gm/


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Minimal GMO Contamination Found in Organic Products


    http://newhope360.com/what-stock/minimal-gmo-contamination-found-organic-products

     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    The Loss of Food Rights: How the Government Destroys Local Farms


    http://foodfreedomgroup.com/2013/07/17/the-loss-of-food-rights-how-the-government-fights-local-farms/


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    US Staple Crop System Failing from GM and Monoculture


    http://foodfreedomgroup.com/2013/07/11/us-staple-crop-system-failing-from-gm-and-monoculture/

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Monsanto’s Roundup Found in 75% of Air and Rain Samples

     27 February 2014


    In recent years, Roundup was found to be even more toxic than it was when first approved for agricultural use, though that discovery has not led to any changes in regulation of the pesticide.

    A new U.S. Geological Survey has concluded that pesticides can be found in, well, just about anything.

    Roundup herbicide, Monsanto’s flagship weed killer, was present in 75 percent of air and rainfall test samples, according to the study, which focused on Mississippi’s highly fertile Delta agricultural region.
    GreenMedInfo reports new research, soon to be published by Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry journal, discovered the traces over a 12-year span from 1995-2007.

    In recent years, Roundup was found to be even more toxic than it was when first approved for agricultural use, though that discovery has not led to any changes in regulation of the pesticide. Moreover, Roundup’s overuse has enabled weeds and insects to build an immunity to its harsh toxins.



     http://www.globalresearch.ca/monsantos-roundup-found-in-75-of-air-and-rain-samples/5371398

     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Occurrence and fate of the herbicide glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid in the atmosphere.


     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21128261

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Fate and transport of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in surface waters of agricultural basins.


    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21681915

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Huge GMO News

     10/19/2013


    It hasn't been a good week for Monsanto and the rest of the biotech industry.
    Just three days ago, Mexico banned genetically engineered corn. Citing the risk of imminent harm to the environment, a Mexican judge ruled that, effective immediately, no genetically engineered corn can be planted in the country. This means that companies like Monsanto will no longer be allowed to plant or sell their corn within the country's borders.

    At the same time, the County Council for the island of Kauai passed a law that mandates farms to disclose pesticide use and the presence of genetically modified crops. The bill also requires a 500-foot buffer zone near medical facilities, schools and homes -- among other locations.

    And the big island of Hawaii County Council gave preliminary approval to a bill that prohibits open air cultivation, propagation, development or testing of genetically engineered crops or plants. The bill, which still needs further confirmation to become law, would also prohibit biotech companies from operating on the Big Island.

    But perhaps the biggest bombshell of all is now unfolding in Washington state. The mail-in ballot state's voters are already weighing in on Initiative 522, which would mandate the labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Knowing full well that 93 percent of the American public supports GMO labeling, and that if one state passes it, many others are likely to follow, entrenched agribusiness interests are pulling out all the stops to try to squelch yet another state labeling effort.

    This time, however, things aren't going quite as planned. On Wednesday, Washington state Attorney General Bob Feguson filed a lawsuit against the Grocery Manufacturers Association (GMA). The GMA, a lobby for the junk food industry, has been by far the largest donor to efforts to defeat the labeling initiative. The lawsuit alleges that the GMA illegally collected and spent more than $7 million while shielding the identity of its contributors.
    The source of the money has now been exposed, and it turns out to be Pepsico, Coca-Cola, NestleUSA, General Mills and a few other junk food companies. The lawsuit reveals that GMA leadership held a series of secret meetings to plot how to perpetrate a money laundering scheme and illegally hide member donations from Washington state voters, in direct violation of campaign disclosure laws.

    http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ocean-robbins/huge-gmo-news_b_4129311.html?ir=Green&ref=topbar


    -------------------------------------------------

    VIDEO: Operation Monsanto Stock Plunge


    April 17, 2014


     http://www.exploringthenews.com/health/video-operation-monsanto-stock-plunge
      
    ----------------------------------------------------------


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -

    Chapter 34:

    The United Nations, DuPont & Agenda 21


    ------------


    United Nations Requests DuPont's Assistance to Help Control Spread of Avian Flu in 69 Nations


     WILMINGTON, Del., May 22, 2006 /PRNewswire-FirstCall via COMTEX News Network/ --  

    As a precautionary measure to combat avian flu, the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) today asked DuPont to provide initial supplies of its DuPont(TM) Virkon(R) S veterinary disinfectant to meet the short-term needs in 69 nations, where it is needed most to help governments and farmers prevent avian flu from spreading. The 69 countries are primarily located in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The FAO is headquartered in Rome.


    http://investors.dupont.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=73320&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=859340&highlight=

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



     United Nations' World Population Day Calls Attention to Key Global Issues

    DuPont’s Innovations, Collaborations Addressing Dynamic Needs of Growing World 

     

     July 11 marks the United Nations’ “World Population Day,” a time to recognize the dynamic needs associated with the growing global population. DuPont is responding to the world’s charge by sharpening the focus of its innovation engines to meet the increasing demand for food, decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, protecting lives and the environment and meeting emerging markets’ demand for science-based solutions. Today, thousands of DuPont people – including more than 8,500 DuPont scientists and engineers in every corner of the world – are collaborating with stakeholders and partners – including customers, governments and communities – to meet these complex challenges that will define the coming decades.


     http://www.prweb.com/releases/DuPont/World_Population_Day/prweb4242414.htm


    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Agenda 21 Land Seizures in US up 100-fold in 10 years


    http://foodfreedomgroup.com/2013/07/26/agenda-21-land-seizures-in-us-up-100-fold-in-10-years/

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    It is often debated how many living organisms would be able to live on this planet. For thousands and even millions of years, living organisms have coexisted with the planet. We can now see the problem with many synthetic fibers that do not biodegrade properly, including microplastics made from petrochemicals, that continue to harm the ocean. If these microplastics were biodegradable from plant material, or were in the form of a non-toxic ingredients, then we might have much less pollution in our waters. If the world used organic technology, from organic computing crystals, to organically made cellulose plastics, it would be sustainable. We cannot continue to let companies such as DuPont, try to market many harmful petrochemicals in products people consume. Too many humans are being blamed in general for pollution, when we could have better organic methods of living. The people of the world need to unite, to stop companies such as DuPont and Monsanto, from trying to pollute the planet with their patents, then blame humans for the pollution. This is why we live in a civilization that tries to release toxins in plastic bottles for drinking water. These toxins in the plastic water bottles do not biodegrade properly.  Then people wonder why there is a ban in certain areas for plastic shopping bags, including a ban on plastic drinking bottles. This is why we should produce plastic that can biodegrade properly. You can take a look at almost any product out on the market, then question if it is made sustainably. Then you could also question if there is a more ecological and more efficient way, of producing many of the items that we see.


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -

    Chapter 35:

    History of the DuPont family.


    -------------------



     Du Pont family history

     The Du Pont family is an American family descended from Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours (1739–1817). The son of a Paris watchmaker and a member of a Burgundian Huguenot family, and descendant of a minor noble family on his mother's side, he and his sons, Victor Marie du Pont and Eleuthère Irénée du Pont, emigrated to the United States in 1800 and used the resources of their Huguenot heritage to found one of the most prominent of American families, and one of its most successful corporations, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, initially established by Eleuthère Irénée as a gunpowder manufacturer.

     During the 19th century, the Du Pont family maintained their family wealth by carefully arranged marriages between cousins which, at the time, was the norm for many families.


     Connected families:

     Astor family, Rockefeller family, Roosevelt family, Vanderbilt family




    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dupont_family

     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Victor Marie du Pont

    After 1784 Du Pont worked with his father in French King Louis XVI's Bureau of Commerce. There he had opportunities to travel around Europe and meet visiting friends of his father's. In 1788 he began four years of work with the French minister to the United States in both New York and Philadelphia. Returning to Paris in 1793, he married and soon went back to the United States, this time as French Consul at Charleston, South Carolina. He remained there until 1797 when he was named French Consul-General at Philadelphia, but being refused recognition by President John Adams, he returned to France.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Marie_du_Pont

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Irénée du Pont I

    He graduated from Andover Academy in 1894 and Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1897, then worked for Fenn's Manufacturing Contracting Company for a number of years before he joined DuPont. While at MIT, he was a member of the Phi Beta Epsilon fraternity, where he was one of the first brothers, contributing over $4,000,000 to the fraternity throughout his lifetime.

                                         
    He was president of DuPont from 1919 to 1925.

    In the 1930s he was a proponent of eugenics.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ir%C3%A9n%C3%A9e_du_Pont
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Phi Beta Epsilon fraternity

                                             ( Phi Beta Epsilon fraternity )

    ( http://1964.alumclass.mit.edu/s/1314/clubs-classes-interior.aspx?sid=1314&gid=55&pgid=11913 )


     ( Cambridge —MIT announced Tuesday the closing of the Phi Beta Epsilon Fraternity on the university's campus. According to an article in The Tech, MIT's student newspaper, a rumor was floating around campus that the fraternity had violated rules regarding hazing.

    Read more: http://www.wickedlocal.com/cambridge/news/x2102734245/MIT-fraternity-forced-to-close#ixzz2doumjQmD


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Samuel Francis Du Pont

    Samuel Francis Du Pont (September 27, 1803 – June 23, 1865) was an American naval officer who achieved the rank of Rear Admiral in the United States Navy, and a member of the Du Pont family; he was the only member of his generation to use a capital D. He served prominently during the Mexican-American War and the Civil War, was superintendent of the United States Naval Academy, and made significant contributions to the modernization of the U.S. Navy.



     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Francis_Du_Pont

    ----------------------------------------------



     Alfred I. du Pont



    Known for being a philanthropist



    In Florida, du Pont made primarily small real estate investments at first, correctly fearing a drop in real estate values, before turning his attention to acquiring interest in banks. He acquired an interest in Florida National Bank (FNB) of 
    Jacksonville, keeping it solvent during a bank run of 1929 by putting $15 million of his own money into an account. During the early 1930s, six other Florida National Banks were opened throughout Florida, including Lakeland and Bartow.

    During this time, du Pont was expanding his philanthropic activities.


     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_I._du_Pont



    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


     Henry A. du Pont -

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_A._du_Pont

    After retiring from the Army in 1875, he was president of the Wilimington & Northern Railroad Company for 20 years, until 1899. An active member of the Republican Party, he was elected by the state legislature as a U.S. Senator from Delaware, serving most of two terms (June 13, 1906 to March 4, 1917).



    Political career

    Du Pont was elected to the U.S. Senate on June 13, 1906, to fill the vacancy in the term beginning March 4, 1905. During this term, he served with the Republican majority in the 59th, 60th, and 61st U.S. Congress. In the 61st Congress he was Chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Military Affairs Department.

    He was again elected to the U.S. Senate in 1911. During this term, he served with the Republican majority in the 62nd Congress, but was in the minority in the 63rd, and 64th U.S. Congress. In the 62nd Congress he was again Chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the War Department, in the 63rd Congress he was a member of the Committee on Military Affairs, and in the 64th Congress he was a member of the Committee on Transportation and Sale of Meat Products.

     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


     T. Coleman du Pont



     A member of the Republican Party who served parts of two terms as United States Senator from Delaware.


    With his cousins, Alfred I. du Pont and Pierre S. du Pont, Coleman bought out the family's explosives business in Delaware. He was president from 1902 until 1915, during which time he oversaw the acquisitions of more than one hundred competitors. He was a key player in the formation of the holding company, E. I du Pont de Nemours Company of New Jersey. In 1907, the DuPont Company was sued for antitrust violations and Coleman later sold off his stake of the business in 1914.


    In 1915 Coleman du Pont acquired control of The Equitable Life Assurance Society from J. P. Morgan and was responsible for the building of the Equitable Life Building in New York City, once the largest building in the city.


    In all, Du Pont served two separate terms, one from July 7, 1921 until November 21, 1922, during the administrations of U.S. President Warren G. Harding, and the other from March 4, 1925 until December 9, 1928, during the administration of U.S. President Calvin Coolidge. The later years of his life were marked by his implication in the Teapot Dome scandal, and by lawsuits over various Florida real estate deals.


      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T._Coleman_du_Pont



    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Pierre Samuel "Pete" du Pont IV (born January 22, 1935)

    Pierre Samuel "Pete" du Pont IV is an American lawyer and politician from Rockland, in New Castle County, Delaware, near Wilmington. He is a member of the Republican Party, who served three terms as U.S. Representative from Delaware and was the 68th Governor of Delaware.


    Later career

    In 1984 du Pont served as Chairman of the Education Commission of the States, a national organization of educators dedicated to improving all facets of American education. He has also served as Chairman of the Hudson Institute from 1985 until 1987 and the National Review Institute from 1994 until 1997.

    Presently, du Pont is the Chairman of the Board for the National Center for Policy Analysis, a think tank based in Dallas, Texas; he is a director with the Wilmington, Delaware law firm of Richards, Layton, and Finger, and he writes the monthly Outside the Box column for the Wall Street Journal newspaper.


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_S._du_Pont_IV

    -----------------------------------------------------------------


     R. R. M. Carpenter

     Robert Ruliph Morgan Carpenter (July 30, 1877 – June 11, 1949) was an American executive and member of the board of directors of DuPont.

     Carpenter also served as president of Wilmington's Homeopathic Hospital, as a trustee of Philadelphia's Academy of Natural Sciences, and as director of the Girard Trust Company, and of the Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington
    Railroad.
     


     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R._R._M._Carpenter
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     Robert Ruliph Morgan Carpenter, Jr. (August 31, 1915 – July 8, 1990) was an owner and club president of the Philadelphia Phillies of American Major League Baseball. When he took command of the Phils, in November 1943 after his father purchased the franchise, Carpenter became the youngest club president in baseball history, and he became principal owner upon his father's death in 1949. "Bob" Carpenter, as he was known in baseball, would serve as president of the Phillies until 1972, when his son, Ruly, succeeded him.


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R._R._M._Carpenter,_Jr.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------


     Girard Trust Company ( Mellon Financial Corporation )


     Mellon was founded in 1869 by Thomas Mellon and his sons Andrew W. Mellon and Richard B. Mellon, as T. Mellon & Sons' Bank. In 1902, the institution became Mellon National Bank


     The Mellon family using the bank as a proxy had direct involvement with founding the modern aluminium, oil, consumer electronics and financial industries. Alcoa, Gulf Oil (now Chevron-Texaco), Westinghouse (now CBS Corporation and Siemens) and Rockwell, all were directly founded and managed by the bank. U.S. Steel (the world's first billion dollar corporation), Heinz, General Motors, Koppers and ExxonMobil (as Rockefeller's Standard Oil) were born and nurtured by Mellon.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mellon_Financial_Corporation

     ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Francis Victor DuPont,

    When Thomas H. MacDonald retired, Engineering News-Record commented that, "The Bureau of Public Roads is a monument to MacDonald." The man who took over that monument, Francis V. du Pont, had once before followed in the footsteps of a great man. His father was T. Coleman du Pont, president of the family's E. I. du Pont de Nemours Powder Company, a U.S. senator, and a leader in the good roads movement. Coleman du Pont built his own 160-kilometer highway from Wilmington to Selbyville, Del., and donated it to the state in 1924. The road, which is now part of U.S. routes 13 and 113. was partially constructed by the du Pont corporation, and the rest was constructed by the state mostly at du Pont's expense.

    Francis, like his father, was a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which employed him in the Aeronautical Division of the U.S. School of Military Aeronautics. He held a pilot's license issued in 1916. After World War I, he was employed by du Pont and General Motors as a research engineer.
    In 1922, he became a member of the Delaware State Highway Commission and served on it until 1949. He was chairman for 23 of those years.
     http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/96summer/p96su10b.cfm



     -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Notice how many of the officials in charge of the government, were responsible for leading the people down an unsustainable path. This is why we see inferior pavements, including lead in the paint being used for street paint. 
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Lead chromate  & Titanium dioxide street paint


    Prime Pigments
    Prime pigments are used to impart chemical properties such as UV stability, or physical properties such as color and hiding. Hiding is the ability of a paint to cover or block out the surface (substrate) beneath it.

    Titanium dioxide is typically used to make a white color. It is the primary pigment that gives traffic paint good hiding power. 
    Lead chromate was typically used to make a yellow color. However, due to health concerns with lead chromate pigments, organic pigments are now being used as a substitute for the lead chromate. 
    Some types of pigments can be used interchangeably between solvent borne and waterborne traffic paint.



     http://virginiadot.org/business/resources/Materials/MCS_Study_Guides/bu-mat-PaveMarkCh3.pdf




    -----------------------------------------------

    Eleuthere Paul du Pont (1887–1950) was an American industrialist, and the son of Francis Gurney du Pont. He founded Du Pont Motors, a manufacturer of automobiles and marine engines, and later bought and became President of Indian Motorcycles. After E. Paul du Pont's death, his wife founded the E. Paul du Pont Endowment for the Study of Crime, Delinquency, and Corrections at the University of Delaware, which led to the creation of their criminal justice program.


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._Paul_du_Pont

    ------------------------------------------------

    Henry Francis du Pont (May 27, 1880 – April 11, 1969), was an American horticulturist, an expert and collector of early American furniture and decorative arts, particularly of Federal furniture, and a member of the Du Pont family. For more than 40 years, he was recognized as a premier breeder for his herd of Holstein-Friesian cattle.


     He acted as an adviser and consultant on the renovation of the White House in 1961-1963, using his wide circle of contacts to gain donations of high-quality antiques and fine art to represent the best in American design.


      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Francis_du_Pont

    -

     Holstein Friesian cattle

     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holstein_cattle


    -------------------------------------------------


    Ben duPont

    Ben duPont is an American businessman, and is best known for founding the company yet2.com and Yet2 Ventures.

    DuPont is also cofounder and Managing Director of Fairbridge Venture Partners. DuPont has served as a director of Vianix, Speakman, Longwood Gardens Inc., Gigsky, Inc, and Bessemer Trust Delaware. Since 2008 he has been a member of the board of the directors for Morgan Stanley Capital International. He is also Chairman of the board for MoBeam Inc., and a board observer of Ecrio.


     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_duPont

    --------------------------------------------------


    Ethel du Pont Roosevelt Warren

    Born in Wilmington, Delaware, she was the daughter of Eugene du Pont, Jr. She was raised at Owl's Nest, the family's estate in Greenville, Delaware.

    On June 30, 1937, she married Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr., son of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Sr. and Anna Eleanor Roosevelt. They had two sons, Franklin Delano Roosevelt III (b. 1938) and Christopher du Pont Roosevelt (b. 1941). The couple separated and formally divorced in 1949. In 1950 Ethel du Pont Roosevelt remarried to prominent Detroit lawyer, Benjamin S. Warren, Sr. Ethel du Pont was forty-nine years old when she committed suicide on May 25, 1965. Her family endowed the Harvard Medical School Ethel Dupont-Warren Fellowship Award for research in Psychiatry.


       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethel_du_Pont

    -------------------------------------------------

     John Eleuthère duPont (November 22, 1938 – December 9, 2010) was a convicted murderer, an American multimillionaire and member of the prominent duPont family.

    In the 1930s he was a proponent of eugenics.


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Eleuth%C3%A8re_du_Pont

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    John du Pont dies at 72; heir to chemical fortune and convicted murderer



    http://www.latimes.com/news/obituaries/la-me-john-dupont-20101210,0,3835669.story


     ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------




     Lammot du Pont Copeland

      Together with Hugh Moore and William Henry Draper Jr. he founded in 1965 the Population Crisis Committee (now "Population Action International") as a lobbying organization for government involvement in population control.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lammot_du_Pont_Copeland

    ----------------------------------------------


    Nicolas Dupont-Aignan

    Nicolas Dupont-Aignan (born Nicolas Dupont on March 7, 1961) is a French gaullist and souverainist politician. He has been a delegate of the Essonne's 8th constituency since 1997 and a mayor of Yerres, Essonne since 1995.

    In November 2010, he announced his intention to run for the 2012 French presidential election and in March 2012 he announced that he had obtained the necessary 500 signatures to run as an official candidate.

     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Dupont-Aignan


     -----------------------------------------------

    Du Pont family

    Spelling of the name

     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Du_Pont_family#Spelling_of_the_name



     The usual spelling of the family name is du Pont when quoting an individual's full name and Du Pont when speaking of the family as a whole; some individual Du Ponts have chosen to spell it differently, perhaps most notably Samuel Francis Du Pont. However, the name of the chemical company founded by the family is commonly referred to as DuPont, or, in the long form, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Other members spelled it as duPont, notably the renowned thoroughbred racehorse owners William duPont, Jr. and his sister, Marion duPont Scott.


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    Robert H. Richards IV


    ------










    As USA Today report:
    Robert H. Richards IV, 47, on probation after pleading guilty in 2008 to fourth-degree rape of his daughter, has never been charged with crimes against his son. The lawsuit filed Tuesday in Superior Court provides in-depth details about a child rape case that did not receive media attention and Delaware authorities never disclosed publicly.
    But Richards also happens to be a member and heir of two prominent Delaware families – the du Pont family, who built the worldwide chemical empire, and the Richards family, who co-founded the prestigious corporate law firm Richards Layton & Finger. His grandfather is Du Pont family patriarch Irenee du Pont, and his father, Robert H. Richards III, was a partner in the law firm until his 2008 retirement.

    Richards IV is unemployed, supported by a trust fund and paid $1.8 million for his 5,800-square-foot mansion near Winterthur Museum. He also lists a home in the exclusive North Shores neighborhood near Rehoboth Beach as a residence, according to the state’s sex abuse registry.  A trust fund baby and convicted child rapist.

    According to Delaware Online:
    The lawsuit argues that statements Richards made while on probation are evidence he admitted in April 2010 to sexually abusing his son. Those assaults began around December 2005, when the boy was 19 months old, and continued for about two years, the lawsuit said.
    The revelations came, the lawsuit claims, while Richards was taking a lie detector test, ordered in an attempt to get him to be more forthcoming about his sexual history. Richards told the examiner he “was very concerned that something happened with his son, but that he has repressed the memories.’” He told the examiner he worried that his acts were “similar to what happened with his daughter,” the lawsuit said. “But he promised that whatever I did to my son, I will never do it again.”
    Several times during 2005, Richards entered the bedroom of his 3 year old daughter at night while she slept, and penetrated her with his fingers while masturbating – according to court documents.  He told her “to keep what he had done to her a secret,” but in October 2007, she told her grandmother, Donna Burg, who informed Tracy Richards, the child’s mother. The girl was taken to her pediatrician, where she was able to explain the abuse and New Castle County police arrested Richards that December.

    Attorney General Beau Biden’s Office obtained a grand jury indictment charging him with two counts of second-degree rape.

    But Richards used “his family’s wealth and position in the community,” to hire defense attorney Eugene J. Maurer Jr. and denied the charges, the lawsuit said. He volunteered to take a lie detector test but promptly failed it, at which point he changed tack, admitted abusing his child, “then claimed that he was ill and that he needed medical treatment,” the lawsuit said.

    The lawsuit states that the proven abuse of his daughter and the alleged abuse of his son have caused both children “long term injuries”, likely to include depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, sexual dysfunction and shame.
    Yet, Richards never served a single day of jail time.  Instead, he was offered a plea bargain – unheard of in cases of child rape – because the judge argued ‘he would not fare well’ in prison due to his privileged background.

    In June 2008, he avoided mandatory prison time by pleading guilty to a single count of fourth-degree rape in a deal arranged by Maurer and prosecutor Renee Hrivnak.  He was able to walk free that day, with just a monthly visit by a probation officer and a $4,395 fine to pay to the Delaware Violent Crimes Compensation Board
    “This self-confessed, admitted rapist and child abuser didn’t go to jail, and, in fact, he stays in luxury where he has always been,” attorney Thomas C. Crumplar, who represents the children and Richards’ ex-wife Tracy, said during a news conference Tuesday.
    He said Tracy Richards asked anyone with knowledge of other possible abuse by Richards to contact authorities, saying Richards had once been a counselor at a children’s camp.


    http://iacknowledge.net/multimillionaire-spared-jail-for-raping-3-year-old-daughter-as-wouldnt-fare-well-in-prison/


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    The people demand the immediate removal of Judge Jan Jurden from public office. This would include a criminal investigation, a trial to take place. Many people have accused Judge Jan Jurden of taking bribes, in order to free Robert H. Richards IV, with very little punishment for the list of crimes that he committed. 

     ----

    Sign the petition for the removal of Judge Jan Jurden from office.

    http://www.thepetitionsite.com/873/572/063/fire-judge-jan-jurden/

    ----

    Since most people are calling for the removal of Judge Jan Jurden, we also need to see if Robert H. Richards IV, is a danger to the well-being of other children.



    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                 Dupont History Documentary



     

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -


    Chapter 36:

     Dupont & The Vatican


    -------------


     Dupont & The Jesuits


    Commission of National Education

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Komisja_Edukacji_Narodowej

     The Commission of National Education was the central educational authority in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, created by the Sejm and king Stanisław August Poniatowski on October 14, 1773. Because of its vast authority and autonomy, it is considered the first Ministry of Education in history and an important achievement of the Polish Enlightenment.


    The basic reason for its creation was that in Poland and Lithuania Jesuits run an extensive system of educational institutions. Although the Jesuit schools were fairly efficient and provided the Polish youth with a good education, they were also very conservative. In addition, in 1773 the Pope decided to close down the Jesuit order (Dominus ac Redemptor). This threatened a complete breakdown of education in the Commonwealth.

    One of the first items on the agenda of the Partition Sejm (1773–1775), which acceded to the First Partition of Poland, was the disposition of former Jesuit property and ensuring the continuity of the education system.

    The Commission was formally created on October 14, 1773. It was one of the newly set up "Grand Commissions"; organizations with the status of a ministry but a collegiate structure. Its main organiser and chief figure was a Catholic priest, Hugo Kollataj; other notable supporters included Ignacy Potocki and Adam K. Czartoryski. Initially the body was formed of 4 senators and 4 members of the Sejm, half of them representing the eastern voivodships of the Commonwealth (from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania). The first head of the KEN was Prince Bishop Michal Jerzy Poniatowski. Although the other members were mostly magnate politicians, the factual creators of the body were prominent writers and scientists of the epoch: Franciszek Bielinski, Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, Feliks Oraczewski, Andrzej Gawronski, Dawid Pilchowski, Hieronim Stroynowski and Grzegorz Piramowicz.

    They were joined by Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours, the secretary of the King of Poland (and father of the founder of the DuPont company).


    -----------------------------------------------------------------

    Knights of Malta, Pilgrim Society, etc


    http://www.scribd.com/doc/4952208/Knights-of-Malta-Pilgrim-Society-etc


    Military Order of Malta related groups

    Pilgrim Society

    Lammot du Pont? (Du Pont, Lammot (Copeland) 1905-1983)[[Lammot du Pont, II (1880- ). + [59]?


    -

      We could not verify that Lammot Du Pont was a Pilgrim Society member.


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -

     Chapter 37:

    Secret societies



    -----------------


    DuPont & the Knights of Malta


    ---


     http://books.google.com/books?id=pI5CAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=piedmont&f=false


    A History of the Knights of Malta: page 34


    The council, assembled for the election of a successor to their deceased chief, ended by nominating Peter Dupont, a member of a Piedmontese family, to that post. At the time of his election, Dupount was residing at his priory in Calabria; and it was with extreme re-luctance that he accepted the dignity, his great age rendering him unwilling to undertake the onerous duties of a Grand-Master, at the perilous crisis in which the affairs of the Order then stood. Eventually, however, these scruples were overcome, and Dupont set out for Malta to assume the duties of his new office.

    -------------------------------------------------------

     http://www.businesspundit.com/when-dupont-almost-overthrew-the-government

    When DuPont Almost Overthrew the Government -


    I love a good conspiracy. This one, involving Great Depression-era businessmen attempting to overthrow President Roosevelt in a military coup, just about beats them all:

    In the summer of 1933, shortly after Roosevelt’s “First 100 Days,” America’s richest businessmen were in a panic. It was clear that Roosevelt intended to conduct a massive redistribution of wealth from the rich to the poor. Roosevelt had to be stopped at all costs.

    The answer was a military coup. It was to be secretly financed and organized by leading officers of the Morgan and Du Pont empires. This included some of America’s richest and most famous names of the time:
     Irenee Du Pont – Right-wing chemical industrialist and founder of the American Liberty League, the organization assigned to execute the plot.

    John J. Raskob – A high-ranking Du Pont officer and a former chairman of the Democratic Party. In later decades, Raskob would become a “Knight of Malta."
    a Roman Catholic Religious Order with a high percentage of CIA spies, including CIA Directors William Casey, William Colby and John McCone.

    Prescott Bush — Wall Street executive, US senator


    ---------------------------------------------

     John J. Raskob

     He was appointed a Knight of St. Gregory by Pope Pius XI


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_J._Raskob

    http://www.chivalricorders.org/vatican/gregory.htm



    --------------------------------------------


    The Achievements of the Knights of Malta, Volume 2
     By Alexander Sutherland



    page 116

    Peter Dupont, a Piedmontese knight, succeeded L'Isle Adam as Grandmaster.

     http://books.google.com/books?id=ZtloxX4Y6YwC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false


    -------------------------------



     Piedmont Celtic Council #99 Knight Masons

    Winston-Salem North Carolina

    The Order of Knight Masons was formed in Dublin, Ireland, on June 18, 1923, for the purpose of governing the degrees previously known as the "Green Degrees." These degrees were formerly controlled by the Order of Knights Templar in Ireland (for more than eighty years) and conferred in their subordinate bodies.

    -

     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_Knight_Masons


    -----------------------




    Steps of Freemasonry -

    https://sites.google.com/site/foothillskelvingrovelodge174/
    what-are-the-steps-of-freemasonry


    -

    The Structure of Freemasonry - http://www.burbanklodge.com/photos/Steps_of_a_Freemason_v2.jpg


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -

    Chapter 38:


     Bohemian Grove & Dupont



    ------



    Bohemian Grove & Dupont


    These two publications produced the following list of Bohemian Grove members from the Dupont family:

    John E. Dupont  &  Ralph Bailey of Dupont



    http://www.whiteoutpress.com/articles/q22012/occupy-bohemian-grove-july-2012/


    http://www.sonomacountyfreepress.com/bohos/bohofact.html


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -

     Chapter 39:


     Dupont & Gillette




    -----------




     Dupont & Gillette


    In 1971, Gillette purchased 48% of the stock of ST Dupont. In 1987 ST Dupont was sold to Dickson Concepts.

    ------


    A dozen men’s shaving creams get put to the blade -

    http://grist.org/article/made-in-a-shave/


    For men, shaving surely ranks as one of our most bizarre daily rituals: We take a razor-sharp blade, scald it hot with water, and scrape the hair off of our faces and necks — even the regions over our jugular veins. Yikes. And to complicate matters yet more, we tend to lubricate the process with gels and foams full of all sorts of dodgy and toxic chemicals. Like the hard slap that greets the hapless shaver’s face in the ’70s-era aftershave commercial, perusing the Environmental Working Group’s Skin Deep cosmetic database is a bracing experience.

    Gillette’s Mach3 Comfort Gel, for example, seems like something we should be working to ban from the face of earth, not smearing on our own faces every morning. It’s chock full o’ stuff like triethanolamine, associated with “cancer, allergies/immunotoxicity, organ system toxicity (non-reproductive), contamination concerns.”



    -----------------------------------------------

      
    Gillette Foamy Regular Shave Foam: Contains four ingredients of concern, including artificial musks and sodium lauryl sulfate -




    http://toremember.wordpress.com/2007/06/05/poison-by-shaving-gillette-mach-3-turbo-gel/

    ----------------------------------------------

    Issue #23: Teflon in My Shaving Cream?
    Slickest Shaving Cream in the West
      - 

    http://guide.thesoftlanding.com/newsletter/issue-23-teflon-in-my-shaving-cream/


    Well, let’s walk it through.  PTFE is classified by Skin Deep as organ system toxicity (non-reproductive), which is known to be a human respiratory toxicant in products that may be aerosolized (airborne).  So this explains why Teflon is a concern in non-stick cookware: it will release fumes at higher temperatures. That only leaves us with one question:  do we need to worry about PTFE in our skincare ingredients, since it only becomes toxic after reaching temperatures above 350 degrees?

    The choice is yours – assuming you’re not using a product like Gillette Fusion Moisturizing Hydra Gel, which not only contains PTFE, but a host of other toxic chemicals.


    -----------------------------------------------



    Why your shaving cream is killing you -

     http://wellgroomedmanscape.com/2010/06/why-your-shaving-cream-is-killing-you/

    Gillette shaving gel has parabens, PEG, laureth and propylene glycol.  Neutrogena shaving cream has PEG and propylene glycol. I admit, it’s a challenge to keep track of all of this. That’s probably why the Environmental Working Group put together its Skin Deep cosmetic database, a handy safety guide to cosmetics and personal care products.




    ---------------------------------------


    New report reveals toxic chemicals with links to cancer, obesity and birth defects in men’s grooming products  -

     http://environmentaldefence.ca/articles/new-report-reveals-toxic-chemicals-links-cancer-obesity-and-birth-defects-in-men%E2%80%99s-grooming



     ----------------------------------------



     http://www.squidoo.com/ChemicalFreeShaving

     Chemical Free Shaving



    4. Silicone oils: Dimethicone, Cyclomethicone, Dimethicone Copolyol

    What it does: Emollient - Coats skin & hair to prevent dryness

    Found in: Hair & skin conditioners, cosmetics, topical drugs, bitumen (tarmac for roads)

    What it causes: Plastic-like barrier that suffocates the skin & hair and traps toxins; dry skin, rashes & dermatitis, dry or itchy scalp, tumours in lungs, thorax & endocrine system, accumulates in the liver & lymph nodes. Has Carcinogenic Properties.

    5. Fragrance

    What it is: Up to 4,000 different ingredients to provide a scent or pleasant smell.

    Found in: Cologne, perfume, after shave, deodorant, car deodorisers, air fresheners, pours purée.

    What it causes: Headaches, dizziness, allergic rashes, skin discolouration, violent coughing & vomiting, skin irritation, depression, hyperactivity, and irritability. Has Carcinogenic Properties.

    6. Paraben Preservatives: Propyl, Methyl, Butyl & Ethyl. (i.e.: Propylparaben)

    What it does: Preservative - Stops a product from going off.

    Found in: Cosmetics, hair care products, eye lotion, foundation, baby preparations, jams & preserves, food colourings, Has been found in breast cancer tissue.



    -----------------------------------------

    2 Billion Razors Each Year -

    As we know plastic is made from petroleum and is a material that becomes increasingly toxic as it breaks down into smaller pieces.

     http://fashioningchange.com/eco-tips/2billion_razors_each_year -
    ----------------------------------------


    Gillette, BMC Inks Win DuPont Packaging Awards -

    http://www.environmentalleader.com/2013/05/20/gillette-bmc-inks-win-dupont-packaging-awards/

    Gillette, BMC Inks and Coop Cooperative have won DuPont packaging awards for reducing waste in packaging.

    Procter & Gamble’s Gillette brand won the gold award for reducing by a third its plastic content for the Venus & Olay razors, switching from PVC to the more recyclable PET and using 50 percent recycled materials, DuPont says.

     ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF PACKAGING IN THE U.S. AND
    MEXICO -   
    http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/SPT/v2_n2pdf/ackerman.pdf


     ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Gillette Removing Carcinogen From White-Out Fluids -

    http://www.apnewsarchive.com/1989/Gillette-Removing-Carcinogen-From-White-Out-Fluids/id-031422e0c4bf504d2ffe321570bcde57




        Environmental groups earlier this month contended that Liquid Paper, a ''white-out'' fluid used for correcting typing mistakes, was not warning customers that some products contain trichloroethylene, or TCE, and lead. TCE is on the state's Proposition 65 list as a carcinogen and lead as a reproductive toxin.

    The groups noted that not only don't Liquid Paper bottles contain a warning, but they also say, ''Non-Hazardous When Used as Directed.'' The firm was relying on a toll-free 800-number posted in stores that consumers could call to get information on the product.

    Van de Kamp said only two persons received the Liquid Paper warning message by making calls in the first year of the 800 number. A Sacramento County Superior Court judge last month ruled the 800 number was an inadequate warning system, but an industry group is appealing the decision.

    The agreement pertains to the following Liquid Paper correction fluids: Bond White, Stock Colors, Thinner, Pen and Ink, Special Match and Paper Mate Office Products.

    Gillette said it would place newspaper advertisements around California informing consumers the products contain the chemical and they can exchange bottles for some non-toxic alternative products. The water-based substitutes are Liquid Paper Just for Copies Opaquing Fluid and Liquid Paper Mistake Out.

    Gillette also will pay the state $275,000 in civil penalties and $25,000 in attorneys' fees and costs, which go to the environmentalist groups that brought the complaint.

    If the company manufactures the carcinogen-containing product after next Feb. 1 or sells it after March 1 it will have to pay an additional $50,000 a month in penalties, to a maximum of $1 million.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Chapter 40:

    DuPont & Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene or perc)



    --------------

    Tetrachloroethylene


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrachloroethylene

    Tetrachloroethylene, also known under the systematic name tetrachloroethene, or perchloroethylene ("perc" or "PERC"), and many other names, is a chlorocarbon with the formula Cl2C=CCl2. It is a colorless liquid widely used for dry cleaning of fabrics, hence it is sometimes called "dry-cleaning fluid." It has a sweet odor detectable by most people at a concentration of 1 part per million (1 ppm). Worldwide production was about one million metric tons in 1985.

    PERC is widely used for metal-degreasing.



    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     Perchloroethylene (Tetrachloroethylene, PERC, PCE)


    What Is It?

    PERC is a chemical solvent used to dry clean clothes. It readily evaporates into air and has a strong, sweet odor. PERC is also used in paint strippers, spot removers, and other solvent-based household products. It is not to be confused with perchlorate, a rocket fuel ingredient that contaminates water supplies.

    Health Concerns

    PERC can harm the brain and central nervous system, damage the liver and kidneys, and is likely to cause cancer.
    Of these health concerns, the best documented is PERC’s damage to the nervous system and brain. Breathing low levels of PERC can cause people to experience dizziness, sleepiness, headaches, and nausea. Inhaling large amounts of the chemical can cause people to pass out and very high amounts can be fatal. Long term or chronic exposure to PERC, even at low doses, can lead to permanent harm, including brain effects such as loss of short term memory and concentration, or central nervous system effects such as loss of muscle coordination.
    Several workplace studies reported elevated risks of esophageal cancer, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and cervical cancer in people exposed occupationally. PERC is linked to cancers in rodent studies, including leukemia, liver, and kidney cancer. The U.S. National Toxicology Program lists PERC as “may reasonably be anticipated to be a human carcinogen” in the Report on Carcinogens. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) lists it as “probably carcinogenic to humans.”

     http://www.nrdc.org/living/chemicalindex/perc.asp

     

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    Dupont Chemicals Co.,Ltd
        
    Tetrachloroethylene  -  http://baixingjuan.en.ec21.com/Tetrachloroethylene--4866879_4867052.html





    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Dry cleaners pose "worst of worst" environmental risk for property owners


    Dry cleaners use a solvent in the cleaning process called Tetrachloroethylene (also known as Perchloroethylene, or Perc), a significantly toxic chemical. It is particularly obnoxious and difficult to remove from the environment and, over time, it degrades into a potent carcinogen.

    Perc is heavier than water; it sinks to the bottom of the body of water it is in.
    • Thus, when Perc is spilled or leaks from a dry cleaner operation, it moves into the groundwater and continues to work its way down until it contaminates the deeper aquifers from which wells typically draw their water.

    http://www.hlenv.com/environmental_risk_dry_cleaners.htm


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


     Fact Sheet: Tetrachloroethene (PERC) in Indoor & Outdoor Air


     http://www.health.ny.gov/environmental/chemicals/tetrachloroethene/


     ------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    Perchloroethylene 

    (aka tetrachloroethylene) and printing





    Perc is used extensively in the preparation of printing plates,
    particularly Cyrel plates (which are still made and sold by Dupont).
    Most
    perc is either recycled on site using a distiller or sent to a central
    distillation facility for recycling.

     http://www.pneac.org/listserv/printech/1120.html


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Chapter 41:

    DuPont & Lazer Printing

    ---------------------

    ‘Legendary’ laser printer engine from Canon owes its success to DuPont engineering polymers
     http://plastics.dupont.com/plastics/pdflit/europe/design/L12226_6.pdf

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

    ARTISTRI™P5400 BLACK PIGMENT INK
    MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
    Product Name: ARTISTRI™ P5400 BLACK PIGMENT INK
    Product Use: Ink-Jet Printing Ink

    MANUFACTURER/DISTRIBUTOR
    DuPont Ink Jet and Specialty Colorants
    DuPont Performance Coatings
    Barley Mill Plaza
    Wilmington, DE (USA)


    2. COMPOSITION/INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS
    Components (% by weight)
    Material                                                                CAS Number                      %
    Water                                                                     7732-18-5                        55-95
    Aliphatic Alcohol                                                                 **                          1-10
    *Ethylene Glycol                                                      107-21-1                           1-10
    Polyglycol Ether                                                                 **                           1-10
    Polymers                                                                           **                           1-10
    Carbon Black Pigment                                            1333-86-4                         1-5
    *Disclosure as a toxic chemical is required under Section 313 of Title III of the Superfund
    Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 and 40 CFR part 372.
    Components (Remarks)
    **The specific identity for each component not identified by a CAS Registry Number is
    withheld as a trade secret.


    Teratology (Birth Defects) - Based on animal studies, ingestion of very large amounts of
    ethylene glycol appears to be the major and possibly only route of exposure to produce
    birth defects. Exposures by inhalation (tested nose-only in animals to prevent ingestion)
    or skin contact, the primary routes of occupational exposure, had minimal or essentially
    no effect on the fetus.
    Reproductive Effects - Ingestion of large amounts of ethylene glycol has been shown to
    interfere with reproduction in animals. Specifically, growth retardation and decreased litter
    size in rats and mice and mating frequency in mice were observed.

     http://www.belquette.com/MSDS/DU%20black.pdf
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------

    Are Laser Printers A Health Hazard?


    http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-3480_162-3133253.html

    According to Marshall, "Researchers in Australia spent 48 hours monitoring the air inside and outside an office space in a well-ventilated and air conditioned building. They found that concentration of particles were five times higher inside the office during work hours than during off hours."

    The source of the particles were laser printers. "When they analyzed the 62 printers themselves, they found that 37 of them had no particle emissions at all, but 17 of them had high emission and actually released as many particles as a lit cigarette," according to Marshall. The specific problem was linked to the dry toner used by some machines.

    There might be long-term implications for people who sat close to their printers or used them frequently. "The theoretical concern is also that because these ultrafine particles could deposit in the small air sacs in the lung and then enter the bloodstream, they could trigger changes in blood vessels that could promote heart disease or even carry cancer-causing toxins," said Marshall. "But this is something that needs to be further investigated."


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Possible Health Hazards From Laser Printer Particle Emissions


    http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/78455.php

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -

     Chapter 42:

    Holograms & tracking


    -------


    DuPont™ Traceology™ Product Tracking System   -

     http://www2.dupont.com/Authentication/en_US/products_services/track_trace/traceology.html


    DuPont Anti-Counterfeit Solutions includes the cloud computing DuPont™ Traceology™ product tracking system, which allows brand owners and other large multi-national organizations the ability to track and trace their products globally through the value chain.  This electronic technology, incorporated into our anti-counterfeit technology, helps to illuminate your supply chain by capturing product movement data throughout your chain.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    DuPont™ Izon® Helps AMD Assure Processor Authenticity -

     http://www2.dupont.com/Authentication/en_US/applications/cs_amd_chips.html


    Authentic boxed AMD Athlon™ 64 FX, AMD Athlon 64, AMD Sempron™ and AMD Opteron™ processor-in-box (PIB) products are among the first in the industry to adopt a 3-D holographic label incorporating  DuPont™ Izon® technology.

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    DuPont™ Izon® … 3D hologram verification

    http://www2.dupont.com/Authentication/en_US/knowledge_center/video-izon-3d-hologram.html -

     Anti-counterfeit technology from DuPont™. This technology enables fast, overt product authentication through the use of 3D holograms for diverse markets from automotive, to electronics, to wine and spirits.

     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    What Are the Dangers of Holograms?


    Processing Chemicals

        The chemicals used to process holograms are similar to those used for photography. The chemicals include methylaminophenol sulfate, ascorbic acid, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, copper sulfate, potassium bromide and sodium hydrogen sulfate. When diluted in water during processing, the chemicals are relatively harmless, but when concentrated some of the chemicals can burn the skin. At no time should the toxic chemicals be ingested.


    Read more: http://www.ehow.com/info_8602115_dangers-holograms.html#ixzz2ekZPRSeY

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Health Hazards of Chemicals for Hologram Processing -

    http://www.hololight.net/hazards.html

    While some chemicals like ferric nitrate produce minor skin irritation, others like bromine vapour can lead to mental deterioration upon prolonged exposure.


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    Top 5 Web Trends of 2009: Internet of Things - 


    What is The Internet of Things?

    The Internet of Things is a network of Internet-enabled objects, together with web services that interact with these objects. Underlying the Internet of Things are technologies such as RFID (radio frequency identification), sensors, and smartphones.

     The Internet fridge is probably the most oft-quoted example of what the Internet of Things will enable. Imagine a refrigerator that monitors the food inside it and notifies you when you're low on milk. It also perhaps monitors all of the best food websites, gathering recipes for your dinners and adding the ingredients automatically to your shopping list.

     http://readwrite.com/2009/09/10/top_5_web_trends_of_2009_internet_of_things#awesm=~ohiPe5ihMyz8HF


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Obama Promises and the Internet of Things: How Your Toaster Will Spy On You In the Future. - 

    http://anewdomain.net/2013/08/05/iot-well-spy-on-you-through-your-toaster-and-wearables-prism-and-petraeus-prediction-inforgrpahics/

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Walmart Installs Obamacare RFID Chip Scanning Health Machines 

     December 23, 2013

    http://guardianlv.com/2013/12/walmart-installs-obamacare-rfid-chip-scanning-health-machines/

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -

    Chapter 43:


    DuPont products


    -------


     http://www2.dupont.com/Products_Services_Index/en_US/


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

     DuPont Specialty Colorants & Additives Product List - http://www.chemicalbook.com/ShowSupplierProductsList12111/0_EN.htm


    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Anti-bacterial Ingredient Triclosan Found to Weaken Muscle

     Triclosan, a chemical added to many dozens of household products, has been in the news this past week as a new study finds that the chemical weakens muscle by interfering with the movement of calcium in cells. Data from the study “provide strong evidence that the chemical is of concern to both human and environmental health.”


     A few of the products containing triclosan include: Colgate Total, Revlon ColorStay LipSHINE Lipcolor Plus Gloss, Faberware Microban Cutting Boards, Fellowes Cordless Microban Keyboard and Microban Mouse Pad, Biofresh socks, Playskool toys (Stack ‘n Scoop Whale, Rockin’ Radio, Hourglass, Sounds Around Driver, Roll ‘n Rattle Ball, Animal Sounds Phone, Busy Beads Pal, Pop ‘n Spin Top, Lights ‘n Surprise Laptop), Ticonderoga Antibacterial pencil, Bauer hockey helmets, Miller Paint Interior Paint, Dupont Air Filters, BioEars earplugs, Petmate LeBistro feeders and waterers, Infantino cart covers and baby carriers, Bissell Healthy Home Vacuum, Rival Seal-A-Meal Vacuum Food Sealer, CleenFreek SportsHygiene Yoga Mat. (See Beyond Pesticides for their list of products containing triclosan, and see the SkinDeep database for a list of cosmetics that include triclosan.

     http://www.ecobabysteps.com/2012/08/18/anti-bacterial-ingredient-triclosan-found-to-weaken-muscle/

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Hytrel® Ski Boot Collar

    http://www.dupont.com/products-and-services/plastics-polymers-resins/bio-based-polymers/case-studies/ski-boot-collar.html

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Most of the synthetic fabrics we see today, such as polyester, can be made with environmentally friendly fibers. Many bio-based polyesters, made from plant oils, will replace and phase out many current polyesters manufactured from harmful petrochemicals.

    We should be cautious of biopolymers such as Sorona®, which still contain hazardous petrochemicals.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


     Sorona® EP Thermoplastic Polymer  -  

    http://www.dupont.com/products-and-services/fabrics-fibers-nonwovens/fibers/articles/a-strong-legacy-in-fiber-technology.html

    DuPont™ Sorona® EP Thermoplastic Polymer contains 37% plant-derived renewable material by weight for a reduced polymer environmental footprint. And Sorona® has a desirable set of performance characteristics as well, including improved surface performance, strength, and dimensional stability.


    DuPont™ Sorona® for Carpet

    DuPont™ Sorona® for sustainable carpet is an innovative solution for both residential and commercial spaces. Made in part of renewable plant-based materials, Sorona® revolutionizes the carpet industry by successfully combining sustainability and performance benefits.


    A Polymer with a Lighter Environmental Footprint Renewably Sourced™ DuPont™ Sorona® is one of our scientists’ proudest innovations. Sorona® contains 37% renewably sourced, plant-based content by weight so products and materials fabricated from Sorona®, rather than traditional polymers, contain a smaller percentage of petro-chemical-derived material, thus helping reduce our dependence on oil. But that’s not the only reason why Sorona® is a more sustainable polymer. The production of Sorona® consumes less fossil fuel energy and emits fewer greenhouse gases than the manufacture of an equivalent amount of nylon 6 or nylon 6,6. Sorona® is easier on the environment in several different ways.



    Performance to Dye For



     Sorona® has stain resistance directly in its innovative, patented molecular structure - so carpet made with Sorona® is stain-resistant for life. Sorona® can stand on its own, but it also blends beautifully with other fibers both natural and man-made. It has both the softness of polyester and the resiliency of nylon.

    Sorona® contains 37% annually renewable plant based ingredients by weight (28% biobased carbon)


    http://www.dupont.com/products-and-services/fabrics-fibers-nonwovens/fibers/articles/biobased-products.html


    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Legal Battle Erupts Over Whose Plastic Consumers Should Trust -

    http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/07/30/157592882/legal-battle-heats-up-over-whose-plastic-consumers-should-trust



    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Solar panel parts, Kevlar fiber boost DuPont profit - 


    http://humanitariannews.org/20131022/solar-panel-parts-kevlar-fiber-boost-dupont-profit#sthash.284bpEcA.dpuf
    Solar panel parts, Kevlar fiber boost DuPont profit - See more at: http://humanitariannews.org/20131022/solar-panel-parts-kevlar-fiber-boost-dupont-profit#sthash.284bpEcA.dpuf

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Many solar panels made from petrochemicals, are being phased out with solar panels made from silicon.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Weed Solutions for the Energy-Hungry Africa?

     While observing these properties of the plant, he became determined to isolate the compound responsible for the responses of the leaves to the solar light and has discovered “the black silicon,” which, according to the researcher, is much more sensitive than the silicon currently used in solar panels.

    http://africanbrains.net/2014/01/02/weed-solutions-energy-hungry-africa/

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -

    Chapter 44:

    Koch Industries


    --------------

    Koch Industries Agrees To Buy Georgia-Pacific

    November 14, 2005

    http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB113191545298295904


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Builder disputes claim that Chinese drywall linked to health problems

     Aug. 21, 2009


    Attorneys who handle construction defect lawsuits filed suit in Clark County District Court in Las Vegas against subsidiaries of Miami-based homebuilder Lennar Corp. and drywall manufacturer Georgia-Pacific Corp. of Atlanta.

     http://articles.latimes.com/2005/nov/14/business/fi-paper14




    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    DuPont - Wikipedia

    In 2004 the company sold its textiles business, which included some of its best-known brands such as Lycra (Spandex), Dacron polyester, Orlon acrylic, Antron nylon and Thermolite, to Koch Industries. DuPont also manufactures Surlyn, which is used for the covers of golf balls, and, more recently, the body panels of the Club Car Precedent golf cart.

    As of 2011, DuPont is the largest producer of titanium dioxide in the world, primarily provided as a white pigment used in the paper industry.



    DuPont was listed No. 4 on the Mother Jones Top 20 polluters of 2010; dumping over 5,000,000 pounds of toxic chemicals into New Jersey/Delaware waterways.

    DuPont has faced fines from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and litigation over releases of the Teflon-processing aid perfluoro-octanoic acid (PFOA, also known as C8) from their works in Washington, West Virginia.[45] PFOA-contaminated drinking water led to increased levels in the bodies of residents in the surrounding area. The court-appointed C8 Science Panel is investigating "whether or not there is a probable link between C8 exposure and disease in the community."[46] The C8 Science Panel started releasing data in October 2008 and linked high cholesterol, but not diabetes, to exposure.[47] DuPont has also faced U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings from the shareholder group DuPont Shareholders for Fair Value over the company's transparency regarding the chemical.

    In December 2011, the non-partisan organization Public Campaign criticized DuPont for spending $13.75 million on lobbying and not paying any taxes during 2008–2010, instead getting $72 million in tax rebates, despite making a profit of $2.1 billion, and increasing executive pay by 188% to $27.4 million in 2010 for its top 5 executives.

    In October 2010 DuPont began marketing a pesticide called Imprelis, for control of certain plants in turf areas. It had the unintended effect of killing certain evergreen tree species and was recalled.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._I._du_Pont_de_Nemours_and_Company




    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Koch cautious in acquiring other businesses


    Koch developed large new parts of its business by acquiring Farmland's fertilizer business in 2003 and DuPont's fibers business, now Invista, in 2004.


    http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Koch_in_Older_Media


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Capital Rivals: Koch Brothers vs. George Soros


    527 Group Contributions (2001 to 2010)
    Koch Industries: $574,998

     http://www.opensecrets.org/news/2010/09/opensecrets-battle---koch-brothers.html

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    Koch Bros: $100 Billion in Tar Sands Profits

    http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/index.cfm/go/news.display/id/25294?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+SBGeneralNews+%28SustainableBusiness.com+General+News%29


    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 


    Koch-owned pipeline spilled about 17,000 gallons of crude oil in Central Texas


     http://beforeitsnews.com/politics/2013/11/koch-owned-pipeline-spilled-about-17000-gallons-of-crude-oil-in-central-texas-2566530.html


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

    It’s Election Day, and the Koch brothers have more votes than you do


     http://grist.org/politics/why-the-koch-brothers-matter-more-than-you-on-election-day/

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    New App Buycott Lets Users Protest Koch Brothers, Monsanto And More

     http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/15/buycott-app_n_3279214.html


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------


    -

    Chapter 45:

    Miscellaneous



    ------------



    The 12 Most Awful Products Made By Monsanto -

    http://fracturedparadigm.com/2013/04/15/monsantos-dirty-dozen-the-12-most-awful-products-made-by-monsanto/#axzz2YFxtgLDG


    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    HOW MONSANTO DOES BUSINESS

    http://www.gmfreecymru.org/news/Press_Notice20bOct20011.htm
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

    Did Monsanto Really Buy Blackwater (Academi)?

    http://www.redicecreations.com/article.php?id=26344


    There are updates to the Monsanto/Academi article sourced from the reputable VoltaireNet.org which we posted yesterday.
    The issue is not as cut and dried as reported. While the relationship between Monsanto and Academi is substantive and troubling, there is no evidence of a direct financial acquisition, says EarthFirst!Newswire.
    However, PoliticalBlindspot insists that this is no hoax to be debunked, and reaffirmed the ties.

    Ultimately, it’s up to the reader to decide which arguments carry weight.
    We’ll continue to keep an eye on this contentious story.



    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    Organic Native American farming for the past thousands of years, has been a good standard that many around the world would use as an example of sustainable farming. Companies such as Monsanto and DuPont, create many hazardous products that are often recalled, and lobby a lot of money to the government, in order to legalize these hazardous products. Once these products are legalized, they are mass-produced in order to make a lot of profit.

    Many people around the world are starting to blame America in general, for many of the problems caused by Monsanto. Currently the people in power in our government, do not have the best interests of the people. The people of America do not want companies such as Monsanto and DuPont, to continue to harm the environment.


    In past history, many establishments and certain families have created much of their wealth from oil. Families such as the Rockefellers, had an empire of oil in America (Standard Oil). Many of the royal families in Europe and the Middle East, have gained their wealth from oil. Now we can see how the DuPont family, like many other royal families, have gained their wealth off of petrochemicals. Many of these petrochemicals are being linked to causing damage in the environment.

     Many of these establishments that own oil and petrochemical companies, tried to keep the people dependent on fossil fuels, while trying to suppress green energy technology. Many of these groups are some of the main groups that are harming the planet.



    We are calling for a full prosecution to hold many groups, legally accountable for harming the planet. We seek to prosecute the DuPont Company, including the Monsanto Company, the Bilderberg Group, the Carlyle Group, the Rockefeller banking dynasty, including other banking families. It is not too late if we have enough people working together, to help stop this type of corruption from harming the planet. I see how many people want to help stop much of the pollution we see around us. However, many people are still not fully aware of the amount of damage that companies such as DuPont, have done to this planet. We must educate others, so that the people can stand together to stop the pollution that is causing harm to our planet.



    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     GMO Opponents Score Big Win As Senate Kills Monsanto Protection Act

    Organic farmers and opponents of GMO crops scored a big victory Tuesday when US Senate leaders announced they would let the so-called Monsanto Protection Act expire at the end of the month and not work to renew it.

    http://www.offthegridnews.com/2013/09/26/gmo-opponents-score-big-win-as-senate-kills-monsanto-protection-act/

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     Interactive food labels: Are they the future

    http://www.foodproductiondaily.com/Innovations/Interactive-food-labels-Are-they-the-future


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    Waimea residents sue Pioneer


    WAIMEA — On behalf of more than 150 Waimea residents, attorneys on Tuesday filed a lawsuit in Fifth Circuit Court on O‘ahu against Pioneer Hi-Bred International, a DuPont company.
    The 58-page lawsuit alleges that Pioneer’s practices in the farming of genetically modified seed crops on fields next to Waimea unlawfully allowed pesticides and pesticide-laden fugitive dust to blow into residents’ homes on almost a daily basis for more than 10 years.

     http://thegardenisland.com/news/local/waimea-residents-sue-pioneer/article_82ff2c3e-2632-11e1-9ca7-001871e3ce6c.html



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    An Island Divided: Hawai'i Battles GMO Industry Takeover

    There are now 40,000 to 60,000 acres of GMO fields planted in Hawai'i—many within several hundred feet of schools. In Waimea, where a middle school backs up to a field of GMO crops, several students recently became severely sick, says DiPietro. The industry tried to blame it on stinkweed plants that mysteriously appeared after the illnesses were reported, but residents say it’s the test fields that are drifting pesticides right into the school's air and water supply.


    The south and west sides of Kaua'i have been home to the world's largest open-air test fields of genetically modified organisms for nearly two decades. Taking over the land once dominated by a thriving sugarcane industry, DuPont, Pioneer, Syngenta, Dow, BASF and Monsanto now crowd the tiny island's once pristine landscape with fields of experimental genetically modified crops including corn, soy and sunflowers treated with a variety of experimental pesticide cocktails. Kaua'i's idyllic climate allows the biotech companies to get 3-4 planting seasons in every year.

     http://www.organicauthority.com/foodie-buzz/hawaii-battles-gmo-industry-takeover.html

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    Genetically modified seed giant DuPont to unleash seed police


     http://www.sott.net/article/254360-Genetically-modified-seed-giant-DuPont-to-unleash-seed-police

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    Greenpeace And Misereor Challenge Dupont Biopiracy Patent

    Greenpeace and Misereor, the German Catholic Church development agency, filed a joint legal objection at the European Patent Office (EPO) against a Dupont patent. Patent EP 744888

    http://www.merid.org/en/Content/News_Services/Food_Security_and_AgBiotech_News/Articles/2001/05/30/Greenpeace_And_Misereor_Challenge_Dupont_Biopiracy_Patent.aspx


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    -

    Chapter 46:

    GREENGUARD


    ---------


    Beware of products that contain the GREENGUARD certification seal.

    Many GREENGUARD products are being marketed as environmentally friendly, but still contain many chemicals such as Formaldehyde, 4-phenylcyclohexene, and
    Aldehydes.

     Boycott Dupont Zodiaq® quartz surfaces, and DuPont Corian® surfaces, these surfaces also contain  Formaldehyde, 4-phenylcyclohexene, and
    Aldehydes.


     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     Floors Can Make You Sick. A Look at Toxic Flooring: Tile, Carpet, and Bamboo -

    http://www.decodedscience.com/toxic-flooring-tile-carpet-and-bamboo/29139

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    HHS Report Names New Carcinogens


     In June 2013, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services added eight substances to its Report on Carcinogens, a science-based document that identifies chemicals and biological agents that may put people at increased risk for cancer.

     Formaldehyde was first listed in the 2nd Report on Carcinogens as a substance that was reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen, after laboratory studies showed it caused nasal cancer in rats. There is now sufficient evidence from studies in humans to show that individuals with higher measures of exposure to formaldehyde are at increased risk for certain types of rare cancers, including nasopharyngeal (the nasopharnyx is the upper part of the throat behind the nose), sinonasal, as well as a specific cancer of the white blood cells known as myeloid leukemia. Formaldehyde is a colorless, flammable, strong-smelling chemical that is widely used to make resins for household items, such as composite wood products, paper product coatings, plastics, synthetic fibers, and textile finishes. Formaldehyde is also commonly used as a preservative in medical laboratories, mortuaries, and some consumer products, including some hair straightening products.

     http://www.healthyfacilitiesinstitute.com/a_367-HHS_Report_Names_New_Carcinogens

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     Formaldehyde: Is It Still a Problem? - 

    http://www.healthyhouseinstitute.com/a-735-Formaldehyde-Is-It-Still-a-Problem
    Formaldehyde: Is It Still a Problem?



    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Man-Made Wood Products
    man-made wood products are generally held together with formaldehyde-based glues. - See more at: http://www.healthyhouseinstitute.com/a-620-Man-Made-Wood-Products#sthash.srt08v5L.dpuf

    man-made wood products are generally held together with formaldehyde-based glues. - See more at: http://www.healthyhouseinstitute.com/a-620-Man-Made-Wood-Products#sthash.srt08v5L.dpu-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    man-made wood products are generally held together with formaldehyde-based glues. - See more at: http://www.healthyhouseinstitute.com/a-620-Man-Made-Wood-Products#sthash.srt08v5L.dpuf


    Zodiaq® quartz surfaces


    This product has been certified to meet the chemical
    emissions requirements for UL GREENGUARD Certification


    Criteria                                                              Allowable Limits
                                                                                                     
                             
                           
    TVOC                                                                  ≤   0.25 mg/m³


    Formaldehyde                                      ≤   0.025 ppm
    Total Aldehydes                                   ≤   0.05 ppm      
    Individual VOCs                                    ≤   0.1 TLV
         
    4-phenylcyclohexene                             ≤    0.0033 mg/m³


    Listing of measured carcinogens and reproductive toxins as identified 
    by California Proposition 65, the U.S. National Toxicology Program 
    (NTP), and the International Agency on Research on Cancer (IARC) 
    must be provided. Any pollutant regulated as a primary or secondary outdoor air pollutant must meet a concentration that will not generate 
    an air concentration greater than that promulgated by the National 
    Ambient Air Quality Standard (U.S. EPA, code of Federal Regulations,
    Title 40, Part 50).

    http://www2.dupont.com/Surfaces_Commercial/en_US/assets/downloads/pdfs/GreenGuard_certs/GREENGUARD_Zodiaq_IAQ_2011.pdf



    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    DuPont 
    Corian® solid surfaces

    This product has been GREENGUARD Indoor Air Quality Certified ® by the GREENGUARD
    Environmental Institute under the GREENGUARD Standard for Low Emitting Products.

    Emission Types                           Standard                       OEM
    Individual VOCs                             < 0.1 TLV                      < 0.1 TLV
    Formaldehyde                                < 0.05 ppm                    < 0.025 ppm
    4-phenylcyclohexene                     < 0.0065 mg/m³            < 0.0033 mg/m³
    Total VOCs                                    < 0.5 mg/m³                  < 0.25 mg/m³
    Total aldehydes                             < 0.1 ppm                       < 0.05 ppm




    http://www2.dupont.com/Surfaces_Commercial/en_US/assets/downloads/pdfs/Corian_Technical_Bulletins/GREENGUARDIAQ.Corian08.pdf



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    Several Products Receive GREENGUARD Certification
     

    Interior Paints Recognized in Programs of Indoor Air Quality and Children & Schools













































    The following products recently received GREENGUARD certifications for the Indoor Air Quality and Children & Schools programs:

    SEAL GRIP® Interior/Exterior Acrylic Universal Primer/Sealer

    PPG SPEEDHIDE® Interior Enamel Eggshell Latex

    PPG SPEEDHIDE® Interior Semi-Gloss Acrylic Latex

    PITT-GLAZE® WB1 Interior Eggshell Pre-Catalyzed Water-Borne Acrylic Epoxy

    PITT-GLAZE® WB1 Interior Semi-Gloss Pre-Catalyzed Water-Borne Acrylic Epoxy

    SPEEDHIDE® SUPER TECH® WB Interior 100% Acrylic Dry-Fog Flat Latex

    SPEEDHIDE® SUPER TECH® WB Interior 100% Acrylic Dry-Fog Semi-Gloss Latex

    Pitt-Tech® Plus Interior/Exterior DTM Industrial Primer

    Pitt-Tech® Plus Interior/Exterior Semi-Gloss DTM Industrial Enamel

    http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20130326005261/en

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    We need to work together as a civilization, in order to stop deceptive certification practices by companies such as the GREENGUARD certification process, which is part of UL Environment, a business unit of UL (Underwriters Laboratories).

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    Ceramic Coated Cooking Pans May be Killing You With Color

    Color coated knives were also found to contain toxic metals
     
    Various brands of ceramic cookware were tested by Kolbotek in an environmental testing laboratory Enviro Services Company (ESC), located next to Israel’s notorious hazardous wastes disposal site Ramat Hovav.
    The tests found that certain ceramic cookware brands (not mentioned here due to reasons of sensitivity) contained amounts of toxic metals far above “accepted levels” (levels that do not constitute a danger to human health unless absorbed in large quantities).
    Even some so called “green guard” brands using a coating called Neoflam were found to contain low levels of these metals, which might warrant then not to be used.

    http://www.greenprophet.com/2011/12/ceramic-coated-frying-pan-toxic/


     ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    Adopt Corporate Social Responsibility or face boycott.

    A new survey shows that 90 percent of consumers indicate they would boycott a company if they learned of irresponsible behavior. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is now de rigueur as consumers are increasingly demanding that companies assume responsibility for social and environmental issues. According to the 2013 Cone Communications/Eco Global CSR Study, 93 percent of those surveyed want to see more corporate social responsibility in the products and services they purchase.


    The survey shows that 90 percent of consumers want companies to go beyond the minimum standards required by law to operate responsibly and address social and environmental issues. CSR efforts are also an important part of attracting a skilled workforce as 81 percent of those surveyed say this is part of their considerations when deciding where to work.

    As explained in the survey report, "corporate social responsibility is no longer an option - it is emphatically and indisputably a must do."

    To meet customer expectations, avoid boycotts or secure talent, social and environmental responsibility is a business imperative.


    http://www.thegreenmarketoracle.com/2013/05/adopt-csr-or-risk-consumer-boycott.html

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    -

    Chapter 47:

    Acetal resin


    ------


    Delrin® - Acetal Resin

    Delrin® acetal homopolymer combines lubricity and wear resistance with the stiffness and strength needed in parts designed to replace metal.
    DuPont™ Delrin® acetal homopolymer resin is a highly-crystalline polymer that has high stiffness and strength without the need for glass reinforcement.

     http://www.dupont.com/products-and-services/plastics-polymers-resins/thermoplastics/brands/delrin-acetal-resin.html

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    In vitro comparison of the cytotoxicity of acetal resin, heat-polymerized resin, and auto-polymerized resin as denture base materials.


    This in vitro study aims to evaluate three different base materials (acetal, heat-polymerized, and auto-polymerized resins) on L-929 mouse fibroblast cells over 1 h-, 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-day periods. The hypothesis was that acetal resin would show higher cytotoxic effect than heat-polymerized and auto-polymerized acrylic resins, as it seems possible that residual formaldehyde might be leaching from the material into the cell culture medium.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19637373

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Acetal Resin as an External Allergenic Factor in Oral Cavity Environment – Laboratory and Clinical Study

    http://www.dmp.am.wroc.pl/artykuly/DMP_2010471017.pdf

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Using Economic Incentives to Regulate Toxic Substances

    Formaldehyde derivatives

    Acetal resins


    page 54

    http://books.google.com/books?id=L-COEm_qR24C&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54&dq=acetal+resin+toxicity&source=bl&ots=20qqwagAuw&sig=_aDFZqvNQhQfswrr-zJ1Y3g1zRI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=TCCcUsyOBNbioASxroCoAg&ved=0CGsQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=acetal%20resin%20toxicity&f=false


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    MORPHOLOGICAL REACTIONS OF WISTAR RAT TISSUES
    EXPOSED TO ACETAL RESIN IMPLANTS


    http://www.piwet.pulawy.pl/bulletin/images/stories/pdf/20124/1021356447.pdf

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    -

    Chapter 48:

    Interesting and controversial links


    -

    -----

     http://www.seattleorganicrestaurants.com/vegan-whole-foods/dupont-history/

    Dark History Of DuPont -

    DuPont pays millions of dollars to food lobbyists to defend its policies. Last year, DuPont spent $4.8 million for lobbying. In fact, most of the food lobbyists who aggressively pursue the policies of DuPont & Monsanto have worked or are working for the government. In 2007 presidential campaign Obama mentioned that the department of agriculture wasn’t department of agribusiness and he promised to put people’s need ahead of financial interests. However he elected officials in charge of USDA or FDA that have been defending, lobbying or working for biotech companies like Monsanto and DuPont:



     Michael Taylor: Former VP in Monsanto who is now FDA deputy food commissioner

    - Tom Vilsack: Former pro-biotechnology governor of Iowa that was assigned as USDA secretary.

    - Roger Beachy: Former director of Monsanto who is now director of USDA

    - Elena Kagan: Took Monsanto’s side against organic farmers in Roundup Ready Alfalfa case and is now nominated to Supreme Court

    - Rajiv Shah: Former director of pro-biotech Gates Foundation who served as USDA secretary

    - Linda Strachan: Monsanto’s and DuPont’s representative who is assistant secretary for U.S. Department of Agriculture and EPA

    - Islam Siddiqui: Former DuPont and Monsanto VP who is now the representative of agriculture negotiator for US trade

    - Ramona Romero: Corporate console to DuPont that now is nominated as General Counsel for USDA. In 2002 based on the Institute of Political Economy Research DuPont was marked the number one among 100 of contributors to air pollution in the US.




    Over the last decade DuPont has been involved in polluting the environment, air and water. In 2002, the residents of Wood County in West Virginia were informed by the spokesman of West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection that their air was contaminated by DuPont’s plant that was producing toxic chemical called C8 (PFOA). In 2011, researchers found out that there is a correlation between high blood pressure in pregnant women and chemical C8. They also discovered that high blood pressure epidemic is usually combined with protein leakage into urine that can cause pre-eclampsia that can threaten the health and life of both mother and the baby.

    Mid-Ohio valley residents’ water was also contaminated with C8, as a result of nearby DuPont’s plant. Medical studies show that three out of four residents’ of Mid-Ohio Valley have signs of pregnancy induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia due to high exposure to C8. Teflon cookware and other nonstick products are made from PFOA or C8. Although DuPont insist that exposures to C8 chemical known as PFOA doesn’t cause any health issues, studies show that exposure to C8 can cause immune system disorder, thyroid, liver problems and higher cholesterol rate in children.



    In 2005, Glenn Evers, the former DuPont's top scientist revealed that in 1981 DuPont was aware of the health side effects of using paper chemical coating in food packaging. This dangerous chemical is like C8 that accumulates in people's body and has adverse side effects long-term. In 2006, the officials of the United Steelworkers revealed a report that showed DuPont’s safety program called STOP is based on the idea that all injuries are caused by workers. However Mike Wright, the head of Health Safety and Environmental Department says that based on 20 years of investigation, the root of many catastrophic incidents in DuPont is related to unsafe workplace conditions. Based on Ken Test, the head of USW DuPont Council, many of DuPont workers and retirees suffer from chronic diseases due to expoure to dangerous toxic substances and chemicals.



    Bilderberg 10

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The DuPonts

    http://www.whale.to/b/sp/duponts.html

    On Jan. 1, 1769 Pierre Samuel DuPont took over the journal’s management. He became a key leader in France advocating a new order. Pierre Samuel DuPont believed in Plato’s idea of government which included a philosopher-king.

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    -

    Chapter 49:

    VX Nerve Gas Spill


    ----------------



    Not walking the talk:
    DuPont's Untold Safety Failures

    http://assets.usw.org/resources/hse/resources/Walking-the-Talk-Duponts-Untold-Safety-Failures.pdf

    DuPont’s True Record:

    • Violations for failure to report industrial accidents to OSHA (see p. 8)

    • One of the “Dangerous Dozen” for putting over 9 million people at risk (see p. 9)

    • 20 Superfund sites (see p. 14) and thousands of sick plaintiffs (see p. 16)

    • Number one producer of toxic dioxins in the U.S. (see p. 17)

    • Sued by the EPA for withholding evidence showing potential harmful effects of its Teflon-chemical, C8 (p. 22)



    DuPont’s lasting negative impact may be to the environment and public health. Juries throughout the U.S. have awarded individuals and communities hundreds of millions of dollars in settlements for the pollution of their living environments and the debilitating effects it has had on their health. In May 2005, the U.S. Department of Justice Environmental Crimes division opened an investigation concerning the company’s handling of its Teflon-chemical, C8.


    From lead-products, radioactivity, dioxins and the Teflon-chemical, DuPont demonstrates a history of denial and deceit. As a Wilmington News Journal columnist opined, “When DuPont has gone to court in recent years, that's been the story time and again -- its unwillingness to swiftly come clean about potential risks posed by chemicals it uses or manufactures comes back to haunt its case.”




    DuPont’s Failure to Report

    Indicative of the consequences of the behavior-based STOP program is perhaps DuPont’s record of non-reporting. We have no real way of knowing how many accidents take place at DuPont’s plants, but we know Occupational Safety and Health Administration has cited DuPont multiple times for
    failing to properly report worker injuries.

    DuPont Failed to Record Injury

     In July 2004, DuPont failed to record an on-site injury of an employee at its Niagara Falls, New York facility, according to OSHA. The effected employee suffered work-related injuries in November 2003 after inhaling chlorine gas. The employee needed immediate medical treatment and missed a month of work. The company was cited for its failure to list the event on its federal OSHA record-keeping log.



    DuPont Violated Record-Keeping Standards

    In 1997 and 1998, DuPont failed to record 117 occupational injury and illness cases and recorded other cases incorrectly at its Seaford, Delaware plant, according to OSHA. At the time, DuPont faced a $70,000 fine and agreed to conduct a corporate-wide review of its injury and illness records over a five year period.



    DuPont Refused to Provide Health and Safety Information to Union

    In June 2004, an National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) administrative law judge found DuPont violated federal law when it failed to provide health and safety information and access to its Niagara Falls plant to Paper, Allied-Industrial, Chemical and Energy International Union (PACE) representatives. The administrative law judge credited the union’s testimony, noting, “There is
    sufficient evidence that the union complained of dangerous conditions.” The judge found that DuPont knew of these complaints, “but either tried to avoid their existence or their seriousness or tried to avoid their being investigated by a trained expert as the union has requested.”



    1 PACE International Union press release. July 12, 2004. DuPont cited by OSHA for violating record-keeping standards.

    2 Alatzas, Trif. February 24, 1999. The News Journal (Wilmington, DE). DuPont plant to pay fine for records violations.

    3 PACE International Union press release. June 8, 2004. ALJ finds DuPont violated Federal law.



    Catastrophes Caused by Unsafe Working Conditions

    DuPont understood catastrophe early in its existence when forty workers died in an 1818 explosion at the original gun powder facility in Brandywine, Delaware.

    Throughout its 200 years many more DuPont workers have perished on the job, including 12 workers in an explosion at the Louisville, Kentucky facility in 1965.

    In its March 2004 research report titled “Irresponsible Care,” the US Public Interest Research Group (US PIRG), a non-profit, non-partisan public interest advocacy group, analyzed data compiled by the National Response Center (NRC), the sole national point of contact for reporting oil or chemical discharges into the environment. The NRC database includes every accident and incident reported to the agency. From the time period of 1990-2003, DuPont ranked number three overall in accidents with 2,115—nearly 150 a year!

    In a separate US PIRG research report, “The Dangerous Dozen,” published in June 2004, the group analyzes the Risk Management Planning (RMP) reports through the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These RMPs determine “vulnerability zones,” which are defined by the EPA as the maximum distance from the point of release of a hazardous substance in which the airborne concentration could reach the level of concern under specified weather conditions.

    DuPont is listed as one of the “Dangerous Dozen” by placing over nine million residents in potential danger if a chemical catastrophe were to occur.

    Accidents at DuPont facilities have occurred because of dangerous conditions that could have been more catastrophic than they were. The following cases were published in news articles and the media in recent years.

    Sulfuric Acid Leak:
    DuPont was issued four citations for the October 11, 2004 leak of hundreds
    of pounds of sulfuric acid into the ground, water and air at its Wurtland, Kentucky
    facility.




    DuPont was cited for:

    • failing to limit the number of people near the cracked pipe responsible for the leak

    • not having back-up emergency staff

    • failing to have emergency response employees wear protective breathing equipment during the spill

    • having no designated safety officer
    Meanwhile, DuPont faces several lawsuits from residents who claim the October spill made them sick. More than 75 residents of Greenup County have filed lawsuits in federal court against the company. Many of the people who claim they now have breathing and vision problems are first responders – fire, police and ambulance crews who evacuated people near the plant.


    VX Nerve Gas Spill:
    The US Army and DuPont have initiated a controversial plan for treatment
    of a deadly Cold War-era nerve agent known as VX at the DuPont Chambers Works plant in Deepwater, New Jersey.


    In July 2005, about 30 gallons of a liquid containing VX spilled at the
    Army’s Indiana chemical weapons depot. The spill happened during a process to destroy the nerve agent by converting it into a caustic chemical called hydrolysate. After the conversion process is complete, the chemical solutions will be transported to the Chambers Works plant for treatment and eventual disposal into the Delaware River. The plan has sparked widespread community opposition in New Jersey and Delaware and the spill, while not at a DuPont facility, increased community concern about future risks.


    Hydrogen Fluoride Toxic Cloud:

    In July 2003, the Justice Department and the EPA reached a
    $1.1 million settlement with DuPont in connection with Clean Air Act violations
    involving a May 1997 chemical release from DuPont's fluoroproducts plant in Louisville, Kentucky.


    DuPont was unable to contain or block the release for approximately 40 minutes. During that time, approximately 11,500 pounds of hydrogen fluoride, escaped into the air. The escaping hydrogen fluoride formed a toxic cloud of gas which migrated from the facility. As a result, several nearby chemical manufacturing plants were shut down and evacuated for several hours, and local public health and safety officials directed nearby residents and school children to stay indoors until the public health threat from the hydrogen fluoride abated.



    Sulfur Dioxide Emissions
    : On June 25, 2003, DuPont was issued a citation by the EPA for
    several Clean Air Act violations at their Fort Hill sulfuric acid plant in Ohio when it increased sulfur dioxide emissions. Sulfur dioxide can cause acid rain and impair lung function.


    Violations included:

    • not meeting federal new source performance standards for sulfuric acid plants

    • not getting a permit to prevent significant deterioration of air quality

    • failure to use best available technology to control sulfur dioxide emissions

    • failure to get installation and operating permits

    • failure to give permitting authorities all relevant information.


    Ethylene Gas Escapes in Orange, Texas:

    In July 2005, as workers were engaged in periodic
    maintenance commonly called a turnaround at Sabine River Works plant, ethylene gas from a separator unit at the plant escaped from a pipeline and ignited in the air.
    23 Seven people received what were described as minor injuries.


    Hazardous Products, Without Warnings?

    DuPont was one of four companies that were sued by
    13 workers injured in a fire at the Malden Mills factory, Lawrence, Massachusetts. The blaze, which swept through the Malden Mills complex on December 11, 1995, leveled four buildings and injured more than 30 people. It was one of the largest industrial fires in history.

    DuPont supplied material that fire investigators believe may have sparked the inferno. The case was settled December 13, 1999 for an unspecified amount.

    Leak Not Reported to Emergency Services:

    In October 2004, four contract employees were
    treated after a faulty pipe at DuPont Titanium Technologies in DeLisle, Mississippi released a chlorine cloud. According to emergency responders the cloud covered an area of about 200 feet, causing breathing difficulty and nausea for the four workers and required the plant to shelter the rest of the employees onsite. The leak occurred in a pipe that routes waste chlorin back into a
    line to be reused by the plant.

    The local fire coordinator was upset that plant officials did not report the release
    and injuries to him until an hour after the four were transported to the hospital by American Medical Response. Better communication, he said, would have made the whole thing a "non-news event."

    Toxic Products:

    DuPont Causes Lead Poisoning for Over 50 Years
    Continuous use and marketing of toxic lead in paint and as a gas additive, called tetraethyl lead (TEL), has emerged as one of DuPont and the paint industry’s earliest cover ups. Industry research from the 1920s that showed lead levels in humans were normal and harmless was revealed as deceptive in the 1960s.

    Industry ignored other studies that demonstrated lead from flaking paint had serious effects on children, including brain damage and death. The New York
    Times reported in the 1920s, that more than 300 workers at DuPont's lead plant were poisoned by tetraethyl lead. “DuPont workers dubbed its Deepwater, New Jersey plant ‘The House of Butterflies’ because so many workers had hallucinations of insects.” And between 1923 and 1925, eight DuPont workers died from lead poisoning. News reports and warnings—such as one sent to
    Pierre S. DuPont describing TEL as “a creeping and malicious poison”—fueled a large well-crafted ad campaign by the industry. DuPontbegan marketing TEL itself in 1948. It continued to make both TEL and lead-based paints up
    until the 1970s and 1980s when lead was banned and phased out of use in both paint and gasoline in the U.S. Prior to the lead phase out, the EPA estimated that as many as 5,000 Americans died annually from lead-related heart disease. After the phase out, the mean blood-lead level of the American population has declined more than 75 percent, demonstrating that lead levels were no normal. However, the prolonged sale and use of lead has had its lasting effects. DuPont gave $12 million to lead-based abatement organizations as a deal to get out of the Rhode Island case against it and other companies. But one case brought by a Wisconsin youth with mild-retardation still stands. One Wisconsin judge summed up the lead industry’s cover up, now that it is faced with numerous lawsuits, when he stated that manufacturers “are essentially arguing that their negligent conduct should be excused because they got away with it for too long.”


    Superfund Sites

    DuPont has 20 Superfund sites. Superfund sites are the nation’s worst toxic waste sites, contaminated by improper handling of waste and toxic materials, often spanning many decades. Superfund sites undergo extensive evaluation to determine the posed risk and are then remediated. Sites that put people most at risk are placed on the National Priority List (NPL) and become eligible for long-term remedial action.Two DuPont sites are currently on the NPL. Two DuPont sites have been taken off the NPL. Many of the sites are former landfills and closed DuPont plants, but they may also include sites where hazardous materials have spilled and were then contained.

    One of the Nation’s Most Hazardous Sites:

    Newport, Delaware
    DuPont’s environmental footprint has been left in the form of 120-acres of landfill in Newport, Delaware, which EPA designated as a National Priority under the Superfund program.

    During DuPont’s 1929 to 1979 production years, the company dumped metals such as lead, cadmium, zinc, barium, mercury, and copper into two landfills and one wetland. After 15 years, the EPA and DuPont continue to remediate the site’s soil and groundwater. The site potentially threatens between 5,001 and 10,000 people who live within one mile.

    Those who once drank from wells placed within a 3-mile radius of the site may be
    especially threatened with organ damage, respiratory problems or cancer, which develop after long-term exposure to metals.

    Water from the groundwater sources has since been banned. Now
    residents receive water from a DuPont-built line. DuPont also had to remove
    approximately 10,000 yards of wetland sediments, and cap both landfills— a $37 million investment.


    But the land is still off-limits for future development.

    Cleanup Sites

    Numerous other contaminated sites are not listed under the Superfund program. Sites requiring remediation can include brownfields, nonhazardous waste disposal facilities, and sites included under a state program. DuPont clean up sites (some that have been subject to litigation) include the following.

    •More Newport pollution:

    DuPont is also paying for another site contaminated on the
    west side of Newport. The company is splitting a $52 million bill to clean up hazardous waste with creosote, which may increase the risk of skin, scrotum and lung cancer for potential workers and 3,500 people who live within a mile of the property. The EPA wants the waste excavated, put in a pile and contained. In a cost cutting measure, DuPont wants to leave the chemicals in the Hershey Run brook and wait for them to breakdown.

    However, the EPA remedial project manager pointed out, “When you’re getting tens of thousands of parts per billion, it’s so acutely toxic there isn’t any chance for degradation to occur.”

    •Lead in the soil and groundwater:

    In Washburn, Wisconsin, the EPA is testing to
    determine if the defunct DuPont site should be on the National Priority List (as of 2003).

    DuPont manufactured explosives from 1905-1971, and now they are paying for its clean up.


    Asbestos, dioxins and cyanide liquids:

    DuPont is one responsible party cleaning up a
    former drum reconditioning plant that sparked a fire in 1994 in New Jersey.

    •First clean up was not enough:

    Contaminants at a Buffalo, New York site re-emerged
    after the site was declared clean in 1992. DuPont is paying $1.7 million for additional clean up that began in 2002.

    •Lasting Legacy at Calumet Grand River:

    Arsenic, lead, chromium, antimony, zinc and acid contaminated the area around DuPont’s Chicago plant. In 1997, DuPont began to assess and then clean contaminants from past manufacturing. EPA was concerned about the hazardous chemicals in the 470-acre site’s groundwater, sediment, nearby wetlands and Grand Calumet River. In 2002, DuPont agreed to pay $10.5 for more clean up of the river as part of a $56 million settlement between DuPont, seven other companies and Indiana state agencies. Studies have shown the releases contaminated the river's water and streambed, affecting migratory birds, fish, invertebrates and aquatic insects.

    • $2.3 million fine for a Clean Air Violation in New Johnsonville, Tennessee:
    In the EPA and the Department of Justice’s complaint, “...the United States alleges that... DuPont failed to perform the required testing, reporting, recordkeeping, and repairs pursuant to enforcing recycling, emissions and reduction requirements involving ozone protection. As a result, nearly 9,000 pounds of refrigerant leaked into the atmosphere. The leaking of refrigerant from the IPRs and the comfort cooling appliances at DuPont's facility results in the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer which causes an increased exposure to the sun's harmful rays. The harmful ultraviolet rays can cause skin cancer.”


    Public Health in Pompton Lakes, New Jersey:

    Residents who live near a closed Munitions
    plant in Pompton Lakes, New Jersey filed a lawsuit against DuPont six years ago for lead, mercury, arsenic and chemical solvent contamination from the plant. DuPont acknowledged “polluting the groundwater under the 600-acre site and an adjoining neighborhood, as well as tainting a nearby river and scores of backyards along the Acid Brook, which flows about two miles from the plant site to a lake, Pompton Lake. But the company said the well met drinking water standards.”

    In 1997, DuPont settled with more than 400 residents for $38.5 million.

    And, in 2003, DuPont agreed to provide lifetime medical monitoring for 1,500 current and former residents, and allow 166 of the sickest to argue for monetary damages in front of an arbiter.

    In each case, DuPont claimed no wrongdoing.


    Largest Producer of Dioxins

    DuPont is the country’s largest dioxin and dioxin-like compounds producer. The
    company’s three U.S. titanium dioxide, or TiO2, facilities top the list for disposal and release of dioxins among all U.S. companies, according to the EPA Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) (see Top Ten chart). DuPont’s unique process of heating and combing titanium ore with chlorine to make TiO2, a white pigment used in almost any product that is white—like toothpaste and the filling in
    Oreo cookies—produces dioxins as waste.

    Top Ten Chemical Facilities Disposing Dioxin and Dioxin-like
    Compounds On-site and Off-site (in grams), U.S. 2003 Ranked Facility
    Total Disposal
    and other Releases
    (in grams)†
    1. DuPont Edge Moor 41,097.7
    2. DuPont DeLisle Plant 15,045.1
    3. DuPont Johnsonville Plant 1,601.7
    4. Kerr-McGee Chemical LLC 298.2
    5. Millennium Inorganic Chemicals 100.5
    6. Millennium Inorganic Chemicals 42.9
    7. Eastman Chemical Co., Tennessee 10.3
    8. PCS Nitrogen Fertilizer LP 4.1
    9. DuPont Victoria Plant 1.8
    10. BASF Corp. 1.4

    Source: Environmental Protection Agency Total Release Inventory
    † Rounded to the nearest tenth of a gram



    Edge Moor, Delaware
    According to the most recent EPA statistics, the Edge Moor
    plant disposed of 41,097 grams of dioxin-laden waste in 2003,
    which has gone into a unique off-site landfill owned by DuPont
    located on Cherry Island. Edge Moor TiO2 waste, often called
    Iron Rich has accumulated into a 500,000-ton pile in what
    Wilmington, Delaware residents call their “backyard.” The pile (which DuPont originally planned to sell as construction filler) was declared hazardous in 2001 by the EPA because of the presence of hexachlorobenzene, manganese and arsenic, along with dioxins. Local residents want the pile of waste hauled off to
    South Carolina for incineration. DuPont wants to implement a more economical plan that calls for putting a tight cap on the pile, which DuPont says will be safer than transporting the material.

    But, government officials have been unable to agree on a plan of action. Citing this
    issue in his opinion piece, Mascitti states, “Unfortunately, DuPont's track record gives the public every reason to wonder if it will hear the whole truth about what it finds [in the pile].”



    De Lisle, Mississippi
    Residents around the DeLisle plant
    (located near Pass Christian) do not
    face a pile of dioxins; instead, the
    toxic chemicals are released into
    their soil, water, air and fish in the
    St. Louis Bay.
    At least 15 kinds of dioxins are in
    the environment surrounding the
    plant and near homes. Most
    recently, the most toxic form,
    TCDD, has been found in three
    parts of the plant, including a now-
    defunct fume disposal stack.

    1,995 residents have linked their
    various illnesses to exposure to the
    pollution from the plant and have
    filed lawsuits against the company.
    One cancer victim has already been
    awarded $14 million as a result of a
    lawsuit he filed against DuPont.

    During the lawsuit, residents and
    workers learned that the plant
    discharged harmful waste into the
    air when equipment was not
    properly maintained. A former
    DeLisle plant manager testified that
    the same fume disposal stack where TCDD was found had been leaking since 1998 and remained in “un-repaired condition until recently.”

    The manager also testified that several 2,000-pound sacks of coke and ore exploded into clouds of dust in 2001. Only in August 2005 (after scientists were granted access to test at the site) did DuPont inform workers that they may have been exposed to TCDD, even though leaks occurred in 1998 and 2001.



    New Johnsonville, Tennessee
    DuPont’s TiO2 manufacturing plant in New Johnsonville has paid millions in fines for violating the Clean Air Act, but it has yet to create a public outcry over dioxins. However, people have to wonder what will come of the waste DuPont has disposed of through deep well-injection.

    Since 1967 the company has been injecting waste in limestone formations more than a kilometer below the earth's surface.

    This has also been practiced in Victoria, Texas, the ninth top emitter of
    dioxins in 1993.

    DuPont has announced plans to stop or decrease deep well-injection, but after
    disposing waste into the ground for at least 30 years, not only is local water at risk, the site may be added to the DuPont Superfund list.



    After a TiO2 Plant is Closed
    DuPont closed a TiO2 plant in Oakley, California around 1997. State regulators
    discovered the soil and ground water at the site is contaminated with many contaminants proven to cause cancer in laboratory animals. Contaminants include CFCs and lead from the production of banned substances, Freon and tetraethyl lead.

    The plant closing came two years after DuPont announced a program to expand their TiO2 capabilities. As part of the program, the company
    planned to expand its Kuan Yin, Taiwan, plant from 60,000 tonnes to 88,000 tonnes. Currently, DuPont is making a deal to erect a $200 million TiO2 facility in the Shandong province in China, which is expected to employ 400 Chinese workers. DuPont also has a TiO2 plant in Altamira, Mexico. DuPont’s “extraordinarily dirty process” (using chlorine) once conducted in Oakley,
    may also result in dioxin contamination at these foreign sites and could soon be
    transferred to China.



    Benlate: Product Contamination? Lack of Responsibility?
    In the case of DuPont’s fungicide, Benlate, the list of environmental, safety and
    cover-up violations abound, including:

    •Prevalence of birth defects may be linked to Benlate exposure
    •Toxic landfills where Benlate and contaminated soil have been dumped
    Nation-wide destruction of farm crops and nursery plants

    •Ecuadorian shrimp farms destroyed by Benlate runoff

    •Companies gone bankrupt

     In court cases and their annual report, DuPont has denied the product caused any ill-effects in humans or to the environment. The company has even been accused of committing fraud in a court of law. Denial of wrong-doing has lasted after more than 10 years of litigation. As the Orlando Business Journal put it, in 1994:

    DuPont has remained adamant that Benlate is not the culprit in massive crop
    damage reported beginning in 1990 by growers in 40 states. The company is
    equally adamant that health-related complaints lodged by approximately 100
    Florida growers are unrelated to Benlate use. 

    Even after DuPont has paid $1.9 billion in settlements, jury awards and other court costs, 75 cases are still pending against the company, according to DuPont’s quarterly report. They involve either plant or shrimp farming damage; claims of fraud, misconduct and violation of racketeering laws; and two claims, to be heard soon, that Benlate caused birth defects. A Florida Supreme Court has already upheld a verdict for a woman, who claimed exposure to Benlate while pregnant caused her child to be born without eyes. While seven weeks pregnant,
    Donna Castillo had been inadvertently sprayed with the pesticide when walking by a fruit farm. Her son Johnny was born with empty eye sockets. After years of court proceedings, Johnny Castillo finally received $4 million from DuPont in 2003.
    During the trial, it was shown that benomyl, the chemical ingredient of Benlate, caused birth defects in the eyes of rats. Even after evidence emerged the product caused birth defects in 40% of lab rats fed the product, DuPont continued to sell Benlate until 2001.

    In addition to benomyl, Benlate is believed to have been contaminated with another fungicide called flusilazole, which is toxic to embryos and not legal for sale. “Despite the fact that flusilazole was never legally registered for commercial sale in the United States, DuPont established guidelines for cross-contamination of flusilazole and Benlate, and, in some cases, requested that flusilazole-contaminated sugar be placed in batches of Benlate.” And in a letter to a manufacturer in 1988, DuPont states the active ingredient in flusilazole has
    “chronic liver toxicity and embryo toxicity characteristics, based upon long-term exposure.’”

    Florida’s Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) developed second thoughts to DuPont’s assertion that Benlate material was not hazardous when they found out about the flusilazole. Florida’s DEP now wish contaminated soil was not approved to be dumped in landfills.

    Despite the evidence, DuPont denies Benlate was ever contaminated. It wrote in its 1993 annual report: “Based on our science, we are convinced that our product did not cause any damage and that it is safe when applied at label rates.”

    However, DuPont’s cases to convince juries and judges that Benlate was safe have included withholding evidence and possibly committing fraud, as some plaintiffs claim. In 1998, DuPont was sued for conspiring with the law firm Alston & Bird to commit fraud by manipulating tests. A Georgia Judge also ordered the U.S. attorney for the Middle District of Georgia to investigate charges that DuPont committed wire fraud, witness tampering and mail fraud. Before the judge could rule on the case, DuPont agreed to give $10 million for legal professionalism and ethics courses at four Georgia universities and $1 million for an annual legal
    symposium, plus legal fees.


    DuPont’s attempts to manipulate the judicial system include several other cases:

    •In 1997, the Hawaii Supreme Court upheld the findings that “DuPont engaged in
    fraud and intentional misconduct,” and acted “in bad faith, wantonly and for
    oppressive reasons” during product liability hearings in the state.

    •In 1996, Miami-Dade Circuit judge found that DuPont committed discovery
    violations.

    •Courts in Delaware and Georgia also sanctioned DuPont for withholding
    evidence. A $100 million sanction was later reversed.

    •$5 million penalty to pay for fees and costs for attorney’s of Ecuadorian shrimp
    farmers in 1999. The judge found three main areas of violation: DuPont hid
    documents that showed Benlate does run off after application; the company
    denied the existence of any federally mandated reports to the EPA of alleged toxic
    impact from Benlate products; and DuPont denied requests that the company
    admit it did not test Benlate’s suitability to the Ecuadorian environment.

    The EPA filed a complaint against DuPont on September 30, 1999 “for the
    company’s failure to report timely information about possible human adverse
    effects from its pesticide Benlate Fungicide.”

    After years of lawsuits over Benlate, shareholders had finally had enough. After
    reviewing the company’s Benlate disclosures, and the costly liabilities resulting from Benlate, shareholders alleged in a securities fraud class action that DuPont made false and misleading statements and omissions about Benlate 50 DF, with the effect of inflating the price of DuPont's stock. DuPont settled the suit for $77.5 million.


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Dioxins and their effects on human health

    http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs225/en/

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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    Fort McClellan Troops Poisoned by Monsanto  

    -

    http://www.fortmcclellantoxicexposure.com/apps/videos/show/18004709-fort-mcclellan-troops-poisoned-by-monsanto


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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    Water and Fish Program


    The water resources program began around 1993 with emphasis on the interior of the Reservation. With increasing awareness of upriver influences we are now very involved in water clean-up plans with Washington Department of Ecology and EPA that address limiting water quality factors such as temperature, total dissolved gas, dissolved oxygen, as well as heavy metals and PCB’s. The Water & Fish Program now maintains continual dissolved gas and oxygen monitors at three locations on the lower Spokane River. Temperature monitoring occurs as waters enter into the Reservation as well as all major tributaries into the lower Spokane River.

    Heavy mining in the upper Coeur d’Alene basin has led to high levels of lead, zinc, and cadmium in the lower Spokane River. Industrial and legacy pollutants such as PCB’s, Dioxins, and PAH’s have shown up in fish in Long Lake at alarmingly high levels prompting us to conduct our own fish tissue analysis of the lower 34 miles of the Spokane River including the reservoir above Little Falls Dam and the upper reach of the Spokane Arm of Lake Roosevelt.

    http://www.spokanetribe.com/dnr-water



    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Many people don't want to purchase products manufactured with chemicals made  from Monsanto and DuPont. This hurts the economy, including many small businesses. Everything from food, clothing, to many everyday items that contain plastic, or any item you can think of.

    We can change many of the current policies made by governments, including the policies of companies such as DuPont and Monsanto. We need to design our civilization, to where these companies would no longer have the power to pollute or harm our planet, with many of these harmful chemical patents.

    We can get rid of the corruption in our political system, and make things right. 

    Future generations will wonder why the past generations allowed this type of pollution to take place. 

    This is a good example of how corruption in the government, has allowed  corporations such as DuPont, to have many special agendas for producing many unsustainable petrochemicals for profit.  Companies such as DuPont, do not have a legitimate concern for the well-being of the environment.

     -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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    -





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    -

    Chapter 50:

    Titanium dioxide


    -------------



    Titanium dioxide



    DuPont Settles Titanium Dioxide Pricing Lawsuit - 

    http://cen.acs.org/articles/91/i34/DuPont-Settles-Titanium-Dioxide-Pricing.html

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles in food and personal care products.

     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22260395

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: a review of current toxicological data -

    http://www.particleandfibretoxicology.com/content/10/1/15


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Gill injury, oxidative stress, and other physiological effects    -    


    http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/sites/neiminer.i-a-i.com/files/Ti09092011001cjd.pdf


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Tissue distribution and toxicity of intravenously administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats   -

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00204-007-0253-y

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    In vivo acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to mice after intraperitioneal injection. - 


    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19156710


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    Influence of Humic Acid on Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Toxicity to Developing Zebrafish   


    http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es3047334


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Investigation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles toxicity and uptake by plants -

     http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/304/1/012057

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles toxicity

    http://scholar.google.com/scholar?start=0&q=titanium+dioxide+nanoparticles+toxicity&hl=en&as_sdt=0,44&as_vis=1


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    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titanium_dioxide



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    -

    Chapter 51:

    Factory pollution


    --------------



    http://scorecard.goodguide.com/smart-search/one-word.tcl?query_string=dupont&x=0&y=0


    POLLUTION LOCATOR|Search Results - 



    Chemical Releases from Industrial Facilities (TRI):

    Point sources of Criteria Air Pollutants (NET):

    Superfund Sites and Other Sources of Potential Land Contamination:
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    http://scorecard.goodguide.com/env-releases/land/site.tcl?epa_id=IAD000606038#description

    Superfund Site Report: LAWRENCE TODTZ FARM
    ARM

    Conditions at proposal (September 18, 1985): The Lawrence Todtz Farm is about 1 mile west of Camanche, Clinton County, Iowa. The site consists of 6.2 acres of abandoned gravel pits. Municipal solid waste and industrial solid and liquid waste were disposed of in the pits between 1958 and 1975. Between 1972 and 1975, 4,300 tons of liquid waste from the Clinton, Iowa, cellophane plant operated by E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., were buried in the pits, according to information Du Pont provided for a 1979 Congressional report on waste disposal sites (the "Eckhardt Report"). Wastes generated in the process contain plasticizers, resins, ALCOHOLS, and heavy metal salts. State studies indicate that a residential well 400 feet south of the site is contaminated with two plasticizers, di-n-butyl-phthalate and BIS (2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE. The well draws from the Mississippi Alluvial Aquifer; wells within 3 miles of the site that draw from the aquifer provide drinking water to 6,000 people. Status (June 10, 1986): EPA's Field Investigation Team will submit a report on this site shortly. The report will be reviewed to determine future response actions.

    Threats and Contaminants
    Groundwater samples from on-site monitoring wells detected HEAVY METALS including ARSENIC, BARIUM, and lead; sodium; and VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) including TETRAHYDROFURAN, BENZENE and TOLUENE from the former waste disposal activities on the site. SODIUM was detected at levels above health guidelines in groundwater samples collected from area residential wells. Wildlife at and near the site could have been threatened. Contamination of surface water (on-site ponds and nearby lakes) could have occurred if there had been a release from the impoundment, because the lakes are hydraulically connected to the shallow sand and gravel aquifer.



    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




    http://scorecard.goodguide.com/env-releases/land/site.tcl?epa_id=DED980555122

    Superfund Site Report: E.I. DUPONT DE NEMOURS SITE (NEWPORT LANDFILL) - 


    Contaminants Detected in Ground Water


     BARIUM
     CADMIUM
     LEAD
     TETRACHLOROETHYLENE
     TRICHLOROETHYLENE



    Are drinking water wells potentially threatened? Yes




    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    http://scorecard.goodguide.com/smart-search/one-word.tcl?query_string=monsanto&x=0&y=0




    POLLUTION LOCATOR|Search Results


    Chemical Releases from Industrial Facilities (TRI):

    Point sources of Criteria Air Pollutants (NET):

    Superfund Sites and Other Sources of Potential Land Contamination:


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    http://scorecard.goodguide.com/env-releases/facility.tcl?tri_id=70070MNSNTRIVER#data_summary_dioxin

    Environmental Release Report: MONSANTO - LULING












































  • 2002 TRI Pollution Releases Sorted by Health Effect*

  • Air Releases
    (Pounds from TRI sources)
    Water Releases
    (Pounds from TRI sources)
    Recognized Carcinogens 37,900 3,200
    Suspected Carcinogens 15,959
    Suspected Cardiovascular or Blood Toxicants 25,648 151,340
    Recognized Developmental Toxicants 14,022
    Suspected Developmental Toxicants 13,800 520
    Suspected Immunotoxicants 52,950 3,200
    Suspected Kidney Toxicants 38,867 1,340
    Suspected Gastrointestinal or Liver Toxicants 102,817 6,040
    Suspected Musculoskeletal Toxicants 15,090
    Suspected Neurotoxicants 88,348 5,520
    Suspected Reproductive Toxicants 62,962 5,220
    Suspected Respiratory Toxicants 102,817 6,040
    Suspected Skin or Sense Organ Toxicants 103,398 5,520


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  • Map Locating Toxic Chemical Releases

  • http://scorecard.goodguide.com/env-releases/facility.tcl?tri_id=70070MNSNTRIVER#pollution_rank_health_impact

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    MONSANTO CHEMICAL CO. (SODA SPRINGS PLANT)
    IDAHO


     http://yosemite.epa.gov/r10/nplpad.nsf/epaid/idd081830994


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    -

    Chapter 52:

    Extra information


    ----------------


    U.S. Rushes to Change Workplace Toxin Rules

    Jul. 23, 2008


    Political appointees at the Department of Labor are moving with unusual speed to push through in the final months of the Bush administration a rule making it tougher to regulate workers' on-the-job exposure to chemicals and toxins.

    http://newstrust.net/stories/23700/reviews/67117


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    Bipartisan Senate bill would give EPA power to ban dangerous chemicals

    May 22, 2013

     http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2013-05-22/news/ct-nw-toxic-chemical-bill-20130523_1_chemical-safety-law-harmful-chemicals-bipartisan-senate-bill

    -------------------------------------------------------------

    Senate committee approves tougher chemical reporting bill

     http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2012-07-25/news/ct-nw-chemical-law-20120726_1_american-chemistry-council-senate-committee-chemical-companies

    --------------------------------------------------------------- 

    --------------------------------------------------------------


      It is too bad we live in a civilization that has allowed toxins in childhood clothing and shoes for so many years. These synthetic chemicals, dyes,  synthetic fibers and toxins that do not biodegrade properly, have also caused a number of problems with pollution in our waterways.  

    We need a civilization where all the plastic and materials for everything you can imagine, would be sustainable. Everything from appliances, toys, computers, homes, clothing, shoes, vehicles, to outdoor camping and sports gear.

    Whatever clothing style people prefer, or want to wear, people have the right to have clothing that is not toxic. 

     When growing up as a child, I remember people talking about toxins in many clothing and perfumes women wear. Twenty years have passed, and I see very little that has been done to stop harmful chemicals in products for women and children, while companies such as DuPont, continue to profit. 

     

    --------------------------------

     Deadly levels of lead in ladies handbags

    Deadly levels of lead in ladies handbags

     (NaturalHealth365) The Center for Environment Health (CEH) found deadly levels of lead in handbags being sold at one in every four retail stores visited. The most likely culprits, according to CEH, were brightly colored purses made of plastic, vinyl or any faux leather.

    Lead toxicity can cause heart disease, cancer and brain damage

    The CEH found lead in the sides of 43 of 300 purses it had tested in a lab. This was after hundreds of handbag manufacturers signed a court settlement to limit the lead in their products. So much for ‘corporate responsibility’.

    According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), adults absorb 11% of the lead that reaches their digestive tract, and children absorb between 30 to 75%. When lead is inhaled – up to 50% is absorbed. And, by the way, the half–life for lead is about 20 years.

    (NaturalHealth365) The Center for Environment Health (CEH) found deadly levels of lead in handbags being sold at one in every four retail stores visited. The most likely culprits, according to CEH, were brightly colored purses made of plastic, vinyl or any faux leather.
    Lead toxicity can cause heart disease, cancer and brain damage
    The CEH found lead in the sides of 43 of 300 purses it had tested in a lab. This was after hundreds of handbag manufacturers signed a court settlement to limit the lead in their products. So much for ‘corporate responsibility’.
    According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), adults absorb 11% of the lead that reaches their digestive tract, and children absorb between 30 to 75%. When lead is inhaled – up to 50% is absorbed. And, by the way, the half–life for lead is about 20 years.
    - See more at: http://www.naturalhealth365.com/dangerous_chemicals/lead_bags.html#sthash.jbNeubED.dpuf

     http://www.naturalhealth365.com/dangerous_chemicals/lead_bags.html

     

    ---------------------------------------------

     

    Jewelry Contains Hazardous Levels of Lead and Other Chemicals


    Jewelry sold at popular retailers could contain dangerous levels of cancer-causing toxic chemicals, according to an analysis by a non-profit environmental group.

    The Ecology Center and Healthystuff.org report that 59% of low-cost jewelry sold at stores like Walmart, Kohl’s, Forever 21, H&M, Hot Topic and Target, contained one or more chemicals considered by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to be a hazard to human health at high levels. Of 99 pieces of jewelry analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for the presence of these chemicals, 27% contained greater than the 300 parts-per-million (ppm) limit for lead set by CPSC for use by children, and 13% contained greater than 100 ppm of arsenic, which has been linked to bladder, kidney, lung, liver and prostate cancers following repeated exposure. Other compounds that appeared in the analysis included cadmium, a toxic metal used in electroplating processes and in battery production that can build up in the kidneys and impair kidney function and contribute to reproductive abnormalities and lung cancer.

     

     

    -----------

    Then we see so many events for cancer awareness. These same plastic bottles for cancer awareness, are being linked to cancer.

     Why is it that in almost every sporting activity we can think of, companies such as DuPont, try to market synthetic polyesters and nylon in most of the outdoor and sporting activities that we see. 

     ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     Euro 2012 football shirts are "toxic" -

    http://www.footballshirtculture.com/12/13-kits/euro-2012-football-shirts-are-toxic.html

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    Your Work-out Clothing May Be Toxic!


     Toxic clothing is made with harsh chemicals like formaldehyde, nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs), insecticides, flame retardants and nano-particles.  Chemicals are introduced at various levels in the manufacturing process of making clothes – growing the raw material, making the yarn, knitting and weaving the fabric and in the color dyeing process.  When the clothing is worn (and sweated in), those chemicals are emitted, so that by both having the clothing touch or be in close proximity to our skin, we are exposed to these toxins. Toxic clothing is a more urgent issue than ever before.  As we move away from buying and wearing natural fibers that have been the staple of apparel-making over the last sixty years – cotton, wool and silk -  and move towards a predominance of and demand for high-tech, “innovative” and man-made fabrications – nylon, spandex, Teflon, these toxic chemicals used in making these synthetic garments are increasingly prevalent in the clothing that we wear to exercise.  The chemicals reside in the very fibers of the clothing; and do harm to our bodies in very real ways.   Significant increases in fertility problems, respiratory disease, contact dermatitis and cancer have all be directly linked to the contact and exposure to clothing made from a cocktail mix of chemicals. Scary stuff indeed!


    http://omalamusings.wordpress.com/2011/11/10/your-work-out-clothing-may-be-toxic/

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Toxic Water Bottles - 

    http://www.popsci.com/environment/article/2008-04/toxic-water-bottles


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Contamination of Canadian and European bottled waters with antimony from PET containers. - 

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16470261

     

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Bisphenol A Exposure from Plastic Mouth Guards

    http://www.debralynndadd.com/_blog/greenlivingqa/post/Bisphenol_A_Exposure_from_Plastic_Mouth_Guards

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    I'm tired of all the marketed toxic synthetic fabrics in sportswear, especially in basketball clothing, football jerseys and in running shoes that so many people wear. I'm tired of all the athletes being unaware they are being poisoned, by thinking they are wearing some type of performance wear. It is difficult for many people to fully comprehend many of the problems with wearing certain types of synthetic fabrics and dyes, which is why this article was created. You hear many stories about people trying to defeat cancer, by doing many outdoor and sporting activities. It is not good that even many cancer patients, continue to wear these harmful fabrics that are being linked to cancer. 

    Many people will claim that the society we have currently, has regressed in co-existing with the planet, compared to more sustainable civilizations that lived in harmony with the land and the waters, hundreds and thousands of years ago.

     

      Look at how many people are still wearing clothing, shoes, sunglasses, including backpacks, made with petrochemicals, polyester, nylon and many synthetic fibers that we now know causes harm to the environment, including living beings. I know that it is not sustainable to produce many of these types of synthetic fabrics that companies such as DuPont, continue to produce. There's many people in the world that continue to wear clothing with synthetic fibers and dyes. Many of these synthetic fibers are causing harm to the planet, our oceans, nature preserves, including the individual wearing these types of synthetic fabrics. 

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     Try to wear organic fibers with organic dyes, if you want to avoid being harmed by many of the synthetic products out there. Many corporations use synthetic dyes in many of the products you see, to cut costs. Then companies such as DuPont, try to market and mass-produce these chemicals just to make a profit. We need to re-examine how the entire world produces fibers, dyes and many other products, and we must act soon. Many people have even demanded the labeling of food for genetically modified organisms, including the labeling of dyes and fibers used in clothing. As a proper means of survival for thousands of years, people have had to be cautious about what types of dyes they would add to clothing that they wear.  It is good to know the types of fabrics and dyes that are being used in the clothing that you put on your body.

     ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    Media Investigation Finds Contaminated Organic Cotton Clothing

    http://www.organicconsumers.org/articles/article_20117.cfm

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Humans are hard-wired to produce many natural items for survival and luxury. Most of these naturally crafted items made by humans for thousands of years, biodegraded naturally into the wild. When many petrochemicals that do not biodegrade properly, are now introduced for human use for mass production, this can cause a problem for the environment. Humans are being blamed in general for much of the pollution. We can have a viable alternative for most of the petrochemical and plastic products we see. We can create a civilization where we can produce many good things for the planet.

     Many people who create new inventions, have also requested more environmentally friendly materials for being able to construct new products.

      There's many harmful plastic products out on the market these days. As a civilization, we cannot allow companies such as DuPont and Monsanto, to continue polluting the planet. Many good humans are being blamed for the same pollution, that we are trying to stop from happening as a society. Companies such as DuPont and Monsanto continue to pollute this planet, by spending millions on lobbying, including bribing officials and using money to influence the election process. We must stand together to stop many of these organizations from damaging the planet. Many people claim that the people in control of the decision making in government that allowed the legalization of many of these petrochemicals, want to try to blame people for the pollution, and create a scientific dictatorship in the name of saving the environment.  The problem is many of the people in control over the policy making in the government, are not doing a good enough job in protecting the environment. This is why many good people will continue to be blamed, for the excessive pollution being caused by these irresponsible government officials.

     We are calling for a peaceful and non-violent resolution to prosecute, and hold those accountable for damaging our planet.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     Monsanto executives attempted to bribe Health Canada to approve the use of rBGH. -

    http://frrole.com/o/monsanto-executives-attempted-to-bribe-h-occupywallstnyc-canada

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     Monsanto Charged With Bribing Indonesian Environment Official -

    http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/jan2005/2005-01-07-04.asp


    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    I am tired of seeing how many of the people in our civilization are unknowingly poisoning themselves, including the planet. 

    It seems that the world would be better off if most of the products that you see today, were made from organic, non-toxic or biodegradable materials.

    Many civilizations before ours, were more advanced in their methods of  sustainable farming, compared to the current path many chemical and agricultural companies such as DuPont and Monsanto have created. We should be cautious of how many chemicals we use in N-P-K rated fertilizers. A small percentage of the chemicals being used in watering crops in a field, will eventually end up in some type of natural waterway. We should be cautious of adding too many synthetic chemicals, including synthetic plant hormones, in many of the fertilizers used for growing plants. Some synthetic plant hormones are currently being linked to causing harm to the environment, including living organisms. This is why it is better to eat organic farmed foods. Many edible plants even grow in the wild, without any assistance of needing to have a farmer use water or fertilizers. We should use a system of nutrients used for growing plants, that would have a low-impact on the environment, including waterways. An example would be using Azomite rock dust - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azomite ), including coco coir  -   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coir ). We could also use soil composting, including other organic ingredients that would biodegrade properly in the environment. There's also many other types of sustainable methods of farming we would like to talk about in the next few blog articles.

    Do you see how many organic ingredients used in soil formulas could be sustainable, if we lived in naturally, and in harmony with the plants that produce our food.


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     -

    Chapter 53:

     

    Bio-pharmaceuticals, Transgenic plants & GMOs

    ------------

     

     

     What if it could be possible to cure many diseases such as cancer, or almost any disease you can think of, through bio-pharmaceuticals from plants, which cannot be chemically produced by hand.

    Many scientists could have a legitimate reason to experiment with bio-pharmaceuticals from plants, to find cures for many diseases.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/226718.php

    "Medicines from plants" - one thinks of herbal teas or valerian drops. However, that has nothing in common with what the researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME in Aachen, Germany, are doing. They use plants to produce biopharmaceuticals. Those are proteins that, unlike many other medications, cannot be chemically produced.

    Biologically produced medications, such as recombinant insulin or therapeutic antibodies to fight cancer, have become indispensable. Plants are particularly suitable for producing complex active substances. The reason is that these substances can be produced inexpensively and on a large scale in plants. Compared to producing them in animal cells, plants have the advantage that they grow quickly, are easy to look after and can be protected well against damaging influences.


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    Plant hormone   - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_hormone

    Potential medical applications

    Plant stress hormones activate cellular responses, including cell death, to diverse stress situations in plants. Researchers have found that some plant stress hormones share the ability to adversely affect human cancer cells. For example, sodium salicylate has been found to suppress proliferation of lymphoblastic leukemia, prostate, breast, and melanoma human cancer cells. Jasmonic acid, a plant stress hormone that belongs to the jasmonate family, induced death in lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Methyl jasmonate has been found to induce cell death in a number of cancer cell lines.

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    Commonly occurring plant flavonoids have estrogenic activity.

     A remarkable diversity of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds have been shown to mimic the biological effects of 17 beta-estradiol by virtue of their ability to bind to and activate the nuclear estrogen receptor. This report extends the family of nonsteroidal estrogens to include several multiply hydroxylated chalcones, flavanones, and flavones. The hormone-like activity of these natural plant products is indicated by their ability to stimulate an estrogen receptor-dependent transcriptional response and to promote growth of estrogen-dependent MCF7 cells in culture. The transcriptional response can be inhibited by the steroidal estrogen antagonist ICI-164,384 and is specific for the estrogen receptor.

     The wide distribution of weakly estrogenic flavonoid pigments in food crops and medicinal plants raises additional questions about the possible health risks and benefits of these compounds, meriting closer examination of their presence in the human diet. 

     http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/44/1/37.short

     

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Transgenic plants as medicine production systems - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9503395


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    Concise review: current status of stem cells and regenerative medicine in lung biology and diseases. - 

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23959715

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    Human stem cells converted to functional lung cells

     http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131201140209.htm

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

    There's many examples of how it could be possible to use bioengineering technology, such as stem cells, to create new organs for people. However, some people still question if certain types of bioengineering, or bad types of genetic modification of certain organisms done in experiments, could still be a hazard to the environment.  Currently, we can see many of the problems with bad genetic modification of organisms, from companies such as Monsanto.

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    Many people think that we should not experiment with genetically modified organisms. Many people also believe that humans should not change the genetic makeup of what nature intended in plants and animals. Some think that we should not genetically modify plants with the artificial splicing of genes, and that this could harm the environment over a period of time, with bad genetic engineering experiments. Such as the cross-pollination of an untested genetically modified organism, or a transgenic plant that could be hazardous to the ecosystem, or even carcinogenic to organisms that eat it.


    The problem with bad genetic modifications of a plant, is when you add an ingredient such as an insecticide into the genetic makeup of a plant, so that it kills targeted insects that bite the plant. If these plants with insecticide start to cross-pollinate into the wild, this could cause an imbalance in the ecosystem if insects eat these hazardous plants. 

    As a civilization, we need to take steps to ensure that bad genetically modified organisms do not escape into the wild and breed with other species. However, this has already happened on many occasions. We can also see the problems with many of the current synthetic chemicals out on the market these days. This makes people question if certain types of synthetic chemicals are even sustainable. 


    When we talk about the possibilities of good and bad things that can happen with genetic modification, biotechnology, synthetic biology and geoengineering, the possibilities are basically limitless. One person could spend a lifetime, with a disciplinary study of a field of knowledge, and still not scientifically understand many of the implications and variables that are associated with these subjects.

    We should be aware of the harm that can be caused to the environment, with the releasing of synthetic organisms into the environment.

    Some people have called for a moratorium on genetic engineering. However, would this stop many governments, companies and individuals from doing unauthorized and illegal tests? Could a moratorium on genetic engineering stop many good inventions that could help the planet?

    We should not release certain chemicals into the wild that could possibly cause harm to the environment, over an extended period of time. We should not we be allowing companies to mass-produce many chemicals that are often recalled. If we do not know the results that certain chemicals will have on the environment, hundreds of years from now, then we need to be careful of what we release into the environment, as a civilization. This is why chemicals such as DDT, PCBs, including certain types of antifreeze, should have never been legalized for commercial production.

    It is often debated if it would be better for this planet, if we stopped the production of genetically modified organisms. As a civilization, we need to be certain that genetically modified organisms would not cause harm to the environment, including living organisms. Many people are currently concerned if rogue scientists would still try to conduct experiments with genetically modified organisms, if there were a moratorium on the production of genetically modified organisms. 

    We need to ban the use of genetically modified organisms in the use of food for humans and animals. Currently, we can see enough problems with genetically modified organisms in food, to where we should call for a ban on the use of GMOs in food. This would also be debated if we should ban genetically modified organisms, including genetically modified organisms in medicines and in agriculture or soil production. Some people claim that if we used synthetic biology properly, that it could even save the world. An example would be the use to synthetic chemicals that could biodegrade properly, that could be used for soil in farming, to producing products such as plastics and clothing materials. However, we can see the problems with many of the synthetic chemicals out on the market currently. Many synthetic chemicals do not biodegrade properly. Many of these synthetic chemicals are often banned and recalled. This leaves many to question if we should ban more synthetic chemicals out on the market. It could be possible to make petrochemicals from plant material, such as from sugar cane. Some synthesized chemicals can biodegrade properly in the wild, if manufactured correctly. If we synthesized certain biodegradable and non-toxic type of petrochemicals from plant material, into biodegradable items, such as biodegradable plastics. This would be a good example of how it is possible to synthesize petrochemicals that could biodegrade properly.

     The big new debate on GMOs, is that if some type of force made the Earth, including the plants, animals and even humans we see. Then what made this type of energy, in order to construct such a variety of genetic traits, of different plants and animals, that we see today. When we look at ourselves, including plants and animals. We see ourselves as organic beings, developed from natural energy. Some people question, how intelligent this type of natural energy is, in order to bring to life, living organisms. This natural energy we see, many people often want to replicate and duplicate. We must be cautious, of people doing bad types of experiments of genetic modification, that could harm the planet. This includes the creation of genetically modified organisms, that would end up harming the cycle of nature that we have been given on this planet. This is why many people think, we should have a moratorium of creating genetically modified organisms in labs. However, we feel that this has not stopped many companies such as Monsanto, from damaging the environment, in more ways than one. We must have accountability in our political system, in order to ensure that future generations inherit a planet, that is not polluted and damaged.


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    GM Foods More Dangerous for Children than Adults


    http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2010/10/07/gm-foods-more-dangerous-for-children-than-adults.aspx



    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    10 Reasons to Avoid Genetically Modified Foods

    http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2010/02/27/10-reasons-why-no-one-needs-gm-foods.aspx

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Warning: GMO Food Causes Devastating Offspring Defects in New Research Study


    http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2010/05/22/jeffrey-smith-interview-april-24.aspx


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Engineered Poison Lurking in Your Everyday Food?


    http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2010/04/03/jeffrey-smith-interview.aspx


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Defend Against DNA Destruction

    October, 2012

    Xanthophylls are concentrated in yellow, orange, and deep green leafy vegetables.13,14 Epidemiological studies show that people who consume large amounts of fruit and vegetables have lower rates of cancer and other DNA damage-related diseases.15,16 But studies that take a closer look show that supplying up to 8 servings of carotenoid-containing fruits and vegetables per day don't demonstrate a reduction in DNA damage or improvement in repair mechanisms.17 Eating 12 servings per day did produce some benefit particularly with regards to reduction of damaging inflammatory molecules, but most people can't sustain that level of vegetable consumption.18 True DNA protection seems to require supplementation to achieve higher levels of these valuable nutrients in your blood.


    https://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2012/oct2012_Defend-Against-Dna-Destruction_01.htm

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Many scientists from many different countries, have accused DuPont, including Monsanto, of genocide.


    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Monsanto Guilty Of Slow Burn Genocide

    Monsanto Guilty Of Slow Burn Genocide

    http://theantimedia.org/monsanto-guilty-of-slow-burn-genocide/

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     For more information on the problems with genetically modified organisms in food, view the documentary, "The Monsanto Investigation."




     http://monsantoinvestigation.blogspot.com/


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    We are calling for a peaceful resolution, and ask that countries do not go 
    to war with each other, and cause more pollution from war contamination. We need to hold Monsanto, DuPont, including many officials, accountable for their crimes against humanity. This would include the damaging of human and animal DNA, through the use of many chemicals such as pesticides, PCBs, including an excessive amount of dioxins.


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Dioxin in our Life


     Dioxin is a name given to hundreds of chemicals. Not all are very dangerous but a few are very destructive. The EPA has found the acceptable level of dioxin exposure to be .006 pictograms per day (EPA, 2001). Studies have found however that much of the population of the US has already unacceptable levels of exposure to dioxin. A single McDonald's hamburger purchased in the US, contains 250 times what is considered to be an "acceptable daily dose" (Campbell and Ewall, 2001). Food products that come from animals have the highest levels of dioxin found in them.

    http://kanat.jsc.vsc.edu/student/guilfoyl/main.htm



    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Many medicines are currently synthesized. We must question the amount of ground and water pollution, being caused from many pharmaceutical companies. This would include the use of pollution from bio-pharmaceuticals. We need to have advanced medical technology, where we can cure many of the medical problems on the planet, without having to use certain types of medicine that has to be recalled, or are in question of causing many dangerous side-effects and pollution. It takes many years of research to figure out how  different chemicals react with living organisms, including the environment. However, sometimes in the medical field, many chemicals that have a toxic effect, can sometimes be used to cure many diseases. Even plants such as poison oak, abrin ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abrin ) and many other natural toxic chemicals found in nature, could have a potential of being able to cure many diseases and illnesses, including types of cancer. 

    ----

    Treating Disease With Nature’s Deadliest Toxins

     

     http://discovermagazine.com/galleries/zen-photo/s/sting#.UvXGjrSZgo8

     

     ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    We need to make sure that we do not practice cruel acts towards animals, used in scientific experiments.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

     

    It is often debated if certain chemicals being genetically modified, or synthesized in bio-pharmaceuticals, should be restricted for the use in testing for medicine. Many people claim that we can even save the planet, by being able to synthesize natural chemicals that could biodegrade properly when formed. However, with many of the current synthetic chemicals that we see damaging the environment, it makes many people question if we would be better off using many traditional methods of different herbal and organic medical practices that many cultures have been using for thousands of years.

    When implementing new technologies in the medical field, we should be certain of the full side-effects of medicine. Often, we see too many times when medicine has to be recalled, because of a dangerous side-effect.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    World’s highest drug levels entering India stream

    PATANCHERU, India (AP) When researchers analyzed vials of treated wastewater taken from a plant where about 90 Indian drug factories dump their residues, they were shocked. Enough of a single, powerful antibiotic was being spewed into one stream each day to treat every person in a city of 90,000.
    And it wasn’t just ciprofloxacin being detected. The supposedly cleaned water was a floating medicine cabinet a soup of 21 different active pharmaceutical ingredients, used in generics for treatment of hypertension, heart disease, chronic liver ailments, depression, gonorrhea, ulcers and other ailments. Half of the drugs measured at the highest levels of pharmaceuticals ever detected in the environment, researchers say.
    Those Indian factories produce drugs for much of the world, including many Americans. The result: Some of India’s poor are unwittingly consuming an array of chemicals that may be harmful, and could lead to the proliferation of drug-resistant bacteria.

     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    250 Million Pounds of Drugs Flushed Down the Toilet by Hospitals

     http://www.treehugger.com/green-food/250-million-pounds-of-drugs-flushed-down-the-toilet-by-hospitals.html

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Urge Pharmaceutical Companies to Manage Safe Drug Disposal

     

    http://forcechange.com/45898/urge-pharmaceutical-companies-to-manage-safe-drug-disposal/

     

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     -

    Chapter 54:

    Environmentally friendly technology

     

    --------------------------------------------

     

     

     When we see how toxic many of the products are from companies that genetically modify plant species ( DuPont & Monsanto ). We can see that the people do not want to trust companies that continue to manufacture many unsustainable petrochemical products. These companies continue to experiment with genetically modifying plants with BT pesticides, that are now in question of causing harm in living beings. DuPont has already manufactured herbicides such as Imprelis®, that killed thousands of trees that should not have died. We should not trust companies such as DuPont and Monsanto, in experimenting with more synthetic pesticides in bio-agriculture research.

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    DuPont Charged With Tree-icide

     The news broke on July 14th.  DuPont's Imprelis®* herbicide is the prime suspect in a series of tree deaths, the main victims being eastern white pines and Norway spruces.  Owners of these conifers are pointing the finger at DuPont, but is Imprelis® to blame?

     The chemical at the center of this legal drama is 6-amino-5-chloro-2-cyclopropyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid, known by its chemistry nickname 'aminocyclopyrachlor'.  Perhaps thinking aminocyclopyrachlor was too long and not sexy enough, DuPont dubbed it Aptexor™.

     Aminocyclopyrachlor is part of a group of compounds that mimic the behavior of plant hormones called auxins.  

     

     http://scientopia.org/blogs/guestblog/2011/07/18/dupont-charged-with-tree-icide/

     

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    The Effects of Synthetic Plant Hormones Used As Weed Killers

    According to the Ohio State University, plant hormones act at low concentrations to control the metabolic and developmental process during plant growth. There are five known plant hormones auxins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid and gibberellins. Synthetic hormone herbicide or weed killer inhibits the hormone auxin, which in high concentrations causes poor growth and plant death.

     

     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    Denmark: Monsanto herbicide contaminates drinking water

    http://www.source.irc.nl/page/2866

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Victims of fungicide receive payout


    TEN Scottish families are to share in a multi-million-pound payout from an American chemical company blamed for causing serious eye defects in their children before they were born.

    The Delaware-based giant DuPont Corporation has agreed a $9m (4.5m) settlement, according to documents lodged with the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), following a nine-year legal battle.


     The settlement is expected to lead to compensation payouts in six figures for the 32 British and New Zealand families. They lodged a claim against DuPont in the US courts in 1998, alleging that a fungicide, Benlate, caused eye deformities. The scale of the payout will depend upon the severity of the deformity.

     http://www.scotsman.com/news/scotland/top-stories/victims-of-fungicide-receive-payout-1-1421790


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Health warning: Mexican cactus sold in California grocery stores contain dangerous pesticide

     February 16, 2014

    SACRAMENTO, California — California health officials are warning people not to eat cactus sold in several stores around the state because of the presence of unapproved pesticides.

    The state Department of Public Health said Sunday that a recent inspection of cactus imported from Mexico found traces of Monocrotophos, a pesticide that has been barred from use in the United States since 1989. Consumption of the pesticide can lead to neurotoxicity and permanent nerve damage.


     http://www.dailyjournal.net/view/story/e2c0a9e993a34b8eb8611be5940b01e3/CA--Tainted-Cactus/#.UwF06IWZgo8

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      MONOCROTOPHOS

     IR-4 FOOD USE REQUESTS

     02/16/2014 

      PR#                          Chemical (MFG)                                               PROJECT STATUS

    01541         MONOCROTOPHOS (DUPONT)                                   USE CANCELED


    Reasons for need‎:‎
          BURROWING BUG, LESSER CORNSTALK BORERS
    http://ir4.rutgers.edu/ir4/default.aspx?prnum=01541&


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    BASF challenges EU ban on fipronil pesticide

    http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/11/05/us-basf-pesticides-idUSBRE9A40O020131105?feedType=RSS&feedName=environmentNews


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Many people who end up buying many pesticides, including petrochemical products from DuPont and Monsanto, are not doing the planet any favors. There is a viable alternative to manufacture low-impact and non-toxic products for everything you can imagine that is out on the market.

     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------


     Organic crystals promise low-power green computing

     http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn18503-organic-crystals-promise-lowpower-green-computing.html#.UmN3KhDNkmw

    ---------------------------------------------------------- 

    Self-Powered Solar Circuit Could Help Computing Become Greener and Faster

     http://www.greenoptimistic.com/2010/02/05/self-powered-solar-circuit-could-help-computing-become-greener-and-faster/#.UmN6qxDNkmw

     ----------------------------------------------------------

     

    Graphene Closer to Becoming Suitable for High-Efficiency Electronics

    Researchers from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are one step closer to turning graphene into the most desired material for producing ultrahigh-efficiency solar cells and electronics

     

     http://www.greenoptimistic.com/2013/08/14/graphene-high-efficiency-electronics/#.UmN_jxDNkmw

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    New "Spin Battery" Storing Energy into Nano-Magnets

     http://www.greenoptimistic.com/2009/03/12/spin-battery-magnetic-energy-storage/#.UmNYqRDNkmw

     

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Japanese Scientists Create World’s First Renewable, Bio-Based Polyester

    But first, a brief chemistry lesson: The base chemicals that make up polyester are
    created during the process of refining oil and natural gas, the main one being
    paraxylene. Toray succeeded where no one else did by using bio-based paraxylene, which a company called Gevo derives from refining biofuel rather than crude oil.


    The impact of the discovery cannot be overstated. Around 40 million tons of polyester fiber, created from PET, is produced worldwide annually, according to the company. But studies show that conventional polyester can leach phthalates, a class of chemicals used to make plastic more flexible, into our bodies. Readily absorbed by the skin, phthalates are known to disrupt the development and functioning of reproductive organs, resulting in reduced sperm counts, testicular atrophy, and early breast development.

    http://www.ecouterre.com/japanese-scientists-create-worlds-first-renewable-bio-based-polyester/

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    New developments and investments foreseen in bio-based polymer production by 2020 in Europe

    http://www.plastemart.com/Plastic-Technical-Article.asp?LiteratureID=1999&Paper=new-developments-investments-in-bio-based-polymer-production-by-2020-in-europe



     Europe’s current position in producing bio-based polymers is limited to a few polymers. However, new developments and investments are foreseen: the first European industrial-scale PLA plant by 2014, the introduction of PET production facilities by 2015, recent developments in the commercialization of bio-based PBT and further advancements in the field of high-value fine chemicals for PA, PUR and thermosets production. Although Europe shows a strong demand for bio-based polymers, production tends to take place elsewhere-largely the consequence of an unfavourable political framework for the industrial material use of biomass.

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     Cellulose-Based Bio- and Nanocomposites: A Review

    http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijps/2011/837875/

    Cellulose macro- and nanofibers have gained increasing attention due to the high
    strength and stiffness, biodegradability and renewability, and their production and
    application in development of composites. Application of cellulose nanofibers for the development of composites is a relatively new research area. Cellulose macro- and nanofibers can be used as reinforcement in composite materials because of enhanced mechanical, thermal, and biodegradation properties of composites. Cellulose fibers are hydrophilic in nature, so it becomes necessary to increase their surface roughness for the development of composites with enhanced properties. In the present paper, we have reviewed the surface modification of cellulose fibers by various methods. Processing methods, properties, and various applications of nanocellulose and cellulosic composites are also discussed in this paper.


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------


    Improvement of plant based natural fibers for toughening green composites

    http://www.deepdyve.com/lp/elsevier/improvement-of-plant-based-natural-fibers-for-toughening-green-1WjKrnx3tZ

    --------------------------------------------------------------------

    ARCHIVED - Lighter, Stronger, "Greener" Plastics


    For several years, the NRC-IMI team has been perfecting techniques involving the use of clay nanoparticles to create new nanocomposite plastics. Nanocomposites have been proven to dramatically increase the strength of polymer materials. Just last year, NRC-IMI launched a joint industry partnership group focused on nanocomposites to further explore the use of such materials. It is hoped that nanoclays will add critical strength to already lightweight foamed materials. As well, nanoparticles have been shown to enhance the growth of foam cells, a process known as nucleation. In the past year, a NRC-ICPET research team, in collaboration with University of Ottawa, became the second group in the world to publish results on the fundamental interaction of CO2 with nanocomposites - an emerging area of study.


    http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/achievements/highlights/2005/polymer_foams.html

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Bio-Based PEF Bottles to Hit Market by 2016


    http://www.foodproductdesign.com/news/2013/06/bio-based-pef-bottles-to-hit-market-by-2016.aspx


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------

     We can use many sustainable materials, such as cork, seaweed, flax and hemp, to make leather and other types of fabrics. Natural Microwool stitching can be stronger than nylon stitching.

    For most of the materials out on the market. We can make the dyes, the stitching and the material itself, environmentally friendly. Currently many dyes, stitching and clothing, is not environmentally friendly. These clothes do not even biodegrade properly in our landfills. 

    Our new 2015 blog talks about many of the problems with many of the items on the market these days. Items such as clothing and shoes, that continues to harm the people, including animals, that come into contact with these harmful chemicals. These harmful chemicals even eventually build-up in our landfills, causing harm to the local environment and communities around these toxic sites.

    Click the link for the 2015 blog titled  ' Pollution Science 101 - Cancer Investigated - (California)'

    ( http://pollutionscience101cancerinvestigated.blogspot.com  )


    ----------------------------------------------------------------------

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    As humans, we can invent many good items. Any appliance or item you can think of, there is a way to make it environmentally friendly, and sustainable.

    We can live in harmony with nature, including our technology, if we use our technology in the right way, and for good purposes. However, with many of the current petrochemicals out on the market from companies such as  DuPont, many will remain to question the exact amount of harm being done by these companies. We need to create a much better world for the next generations of living beings on this planet.

    We can see the problem, reaction and solution that many of these companies have created. Such as how certain companies cause ground and water pollution, while other companies make a profit off of cleaning up the pollution.

    The problem is that the authorities legalized many toxic chemicals for mass production, that should have never been legalized in the first place. The reaction of many is that we need to create a sustainable civilization for the next generations, for millions of years to come.  There's many different solutions, some are good and some are not too good. 

     Some people in the media even claim that the authorities who legalized many of these toxins, want to create work camps, or labor camps, for people to have to clean-up the oceans, rivers, waterways, mountains and the environment. 

    Look at many products are being made currently with planned obsolescence in mind. 

    --------------------------------------------------------------

    Planned obsolescence

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planned_obsolescence


    Planned obsolescence or built-in obsolescence in industrial design is a policy of planning or designing a product with a limited useful life, so it will become obsolete, that is, unfashionable or no longer functional after a certain period of time.

    History and origins of the phrase

     In the United States, automotive design reached a turning point in 1924 when the American national automobile market began reaching saturation. To maintain unit sales, General Motors head Alfred P. Sloan Jr. suggested annual model-year design changes to convince car owners that they needed to buy a new replacement each year, an idea borrowed from the bicycle industry (though Sloan usually gets the credit, or blame). Critics called his strategy "planned obsolescence". Sloan preferred the term "dynamic obsolescence". This strategy had far-reaching effects on the auto business, the field of product design, and eventually the American economy.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Should companies such as DuPont be shutdown for harming the planet?

    The answer to that question is yes.

    As we see with the information provided above. I do not feel comfortable letting a company such as DuPont, to continue to pollute the environment. DuPont has attempted to cut corners in every way possible, to still add and create harmful petrochemical products in many bioplastics and biopolyesters.

      Do you see how polluted many of our water sources have become, compared to a hundred years ago. 

    DuPont has been in existence for over two hundred years. While Monsanto has been around for over a hundred years. In this time, we can see the harm and damage these two companies have done to the environment.

    We need rules in place, so that companies such as DuPont and Monsanto, cannot harm the environment with these chemicals and experiments. Many governments of the world are deeply connected to many companies such as DuPont and Monsanto. Many of these companies have investors in many different chemical companies around the world.

     Some people question if a company such as DuPont, could be used to find many cures for diseases. DuPont has endangered the planet too much, we need to shutdown the DuPont company permanently. We should take the medical research done from DuPont, and keep it for scientific medical research to be used by more ethical organisations.

     

    It is a shame that so many people have allowed the greed of money to cause harm to the environment. 

    The information on the amount of pollution being caused by DuPont and Monsanto is so enormous, that all of the information associated with many these companies could not fit on a regular blog page.

      Here is a following preview of some of the information that will be released in the next series of articles and information called  "The Climate Investigations." We would like to show the audience much of the pollution being caused in many waterways, including the atmosphere. We would also like to show how we can create a sustainable civilization using environmentally friendly technology, to avoid harming the Earth. 


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

    -

     Chapter 55

     Lazers & Weather modification

     

    --------------------------------- 



    Indium phosphide, Diode Lazers & Dupont

    Lazers & Dupont


    Diode lazer

    DuPont originally began the research into building a blue diode laser for CD read/write devices, however they were unable to make the lasers suitable for commercial use. AdvR licensed the patents from DuPont and received BMDO funding to create a solid-state replacement for the Argon-ion laser.

    http://www.mdatechnology.net/techprofile.aspx?id=555


    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    DuPont - LASER WELDING

    http://www2.dupont.com/Hyundai_Kia/en_US/assets/downloads/presentations/Laser%20Welding_Korea_Fujita.pdf



    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    DuPont Introduces Water Resistant Somos(R) 7110 Epoxy Resin for Helium Cadmium Laser Systems - 

    http://www.thefreelibrary.com/DuPont+Introduces+Water+Resistant+Somos%28R%29+7110+Epoxy+Resin+for...-a019781521

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    A. Felix du Pont, Jr. - 

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A._Felix_du_Pont,_Jr.


    Known for being a philanthropist


    For five years, Felix du Pont worked for the family owned DuPont and for a short time became involved in the investment business. With a lifelong interest in aviation, he partnered with brother Richard to found All American Aviation Company which became Allegheny Airlines and eventually US Airways. He later was a vice president of the Piasecki Helicopter Corp. of which he and Laurence Rockefeller were early investors on its founding in 1946.



    ( Piasecki Helicopter Corporation was a designer and manufacturer of helicopters located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and nearby Morton, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s and the 1950s. Its founder, Frank Piasecki, was ousted from the company in 1956 and started a new company, Piasecki Aircraft. Piasecki Helicopter was renamed Vertol Corporation in early 1956. 

    Vertol was acquired by Boeing in 1960 and renamed Boeing Vertol. -

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piasecki_Helicopter   )

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Electric Laser Race Heats Up

    http://sites.psu.edu/thebigbangtheory/2012/10/29/the-holographic-excitation/



    Not wanting to be left out of the race to field compact battlefield lasers, Boeing announced yesterday that it’s tested its own solid-state laser technology. "In each laser firing at Boeing’s facility in West Hills, Calif., the high-energy laser achieved power levels of over 25 kilowatts for multi-second durations, with a measured beam quality suitable for a tactical weapon system," says Boeing.
    What’s interesting about this announcement is that Boeing is not part of the Defense Department’s Joint High-Powered Solid State Laser, a program that has funded Northrop Grumman and Textron to build a deployable laser weapon. Boeing at one point teamed with the Livermore lab on a solid-state work, but that laser, which was powerful but large, was not selected by the program for funding. Similarly, Raytheon also has a solid state laser that was passed over for funding. Both Livermore and Raytheon have continued their solid-state laser work on their own dime, however. Boeing, until this point, did not appear to be that active on solid-state lasers, and it appears this new effort is self-funded.

    ALSO:

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     Boeing Laser Systems Destroy Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Tests

    Boeing's Matrix laser

     http://news.cnet.com/2300-11386_3-10012168-17.html
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Boeing says laser weapon a success in Pentagon testing

      Boeing Co.'s Directed Energy Systems division says it has achieved a sufficient level of power and beam quality to allow a solid-state laser system to be deployed to battlefields. The system - which could eventually bring down rockets and drones and destroy IEDs with a blast of light- is part of a major effort towards the development of directed energy weapons.

    Boeing announced last week its Thin Disk Laser System, which uses a series of high-powered industrial lasers to generate a single concentrated, high-energy beam, has achieved the required thresholds for power and beam quality during demonstrations for the Department of Defense's Robust Electric Laser Initiative, or RELI, effort.

     http://blog.al.com/breaking/2013/08/one_step_closer_to_star_wars_b.html

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     Boeing to be awarded contract for Laser SDB

    28 June, 2013
    28 June, 2013
      28 June, 2013
     
    The US Air Force intends to award Boeing a contract to develop and test a new laser-guided version of its 250lb (113kg) small diameter bomb (SDB).

    The company says that the weapons can carry out many of the functions of Raytheon’s SDB II, which has a tri-modal seeker with millimeter wave radar, infrared, and semi-active laser guidance capabilities, at far lower cost. The new weapon is based on Boeing’s laser joint direct attack munition (JDAM) technology.

     http://www.flightglobal.com/blogs/the-dewline/2013/06/boeing-to-be-awarded-contract/#sthash.wOJQCrub.dpuf

    The US Air Force intends to award Boeing a contract to develop and test a new laser-guided version of its 250lb (113kg) small diameter bomb (SDB).
    The company says that the weapons can carry out many of the functions of Raytheon’s SDB II, which has a tri-modal seeker with millimeter wave radar, infrared, and semi-active laser guidance capabilities, at far lower cost. The new weapon is based on Boeing’s laser joint direct attack munition (JDAM) technology.
    - See more at: http://www.flightglobal.com/blogs/the-dewline/2013/06/boeing-to-be-awarded-contract/#sthash.wOJQCrub.dpuf

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Raytheon Government Agencies and Companies to Come to Consensus on Weather Modification


    A Plan for the next phase in Weather Modification Science and Technology
    Development

    Weather Modification Association Annual Meeting, 2005


    PDF: Raytheon says more WEATHER MODIFICATION!

     http://r3zn8d.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/raytheon-says-moar-weather-modification.pdf

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Connecting the Raytheon, AMS, Lockheed, HAARP, NOAA, General Dynamics and DARPA dots….

    Defense Advanced Research Program Association, or DARPA, has contracted co-operation command of the Highly Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) electromagnetic microwave ionospheric heater in Gakona, Alaska, for military communication and weapon “defense” purposes. They also take part in biological warfare “testing” over land, water, and city, whereby defense contractor jets, such as those crafted especially for war or weather programs by BAE Systems (owner of the HAARP facility) or Raytheon (owner of the HAARP patent), for the Navy and Air Force and NATO, disperse hazardous toxins into the air and then attempt to eradicate them with chemicals or jet-mounted microwave radiation weapons (like AESA). In addition, the Lockheed Martin and Boeing corporations joined up in a B2B contract with BAE and Raytheon, hardware and software hosted by none other than Microsoft, so that their defense contractor industry market could remain consistently and wirelessly networked, and would never be halted by distance, time, or situational awareness. The NOAA, a member of the Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, (partnered on that board with the American Meteorological Society and the National Science Foundation) sold its weather reporting functionality to Raytheon, who operates it now under the name Advanced Weather Information Processing System. Raytheon happens to contract many of its services and industrial airliners to the tune of global weather modification programs, such as those ever popular “global warming mitigation” or “global dimming” programs, (whereby jets utilizing liquid propane, liquid nitrogen, silver iodide, potassium chlorate, barium oxide, acrylamides, and trimethyl aluminum, spray these chemicals to replace cloud cover over entire countries) and, they’ve even managed to create, through their sub-company General Dynamics Robotics, Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles such as the Global Hawk that can fly for 72 hours, with a payload of 20,000 lbs or more, running entirely on programming and artificial intelligence microwave signal networking, without landing or refueling. It’s not just local chemical “cloud seeding” or “storm prevention” anymore, as is still practiced by the state-and-regional program member companies of the Weather Modification Association.

    http://geoengineeringwatch.org/html/weatherreportedbyraytheon.html

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Free Electron Laser (FEL)

    http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/military/research/8-laser-weapon-systems-to-zap-planes-boats-and-people#slide-6


    Power: 100-kw class

    In 1989 Boeing was awarded a contract to build a unique laser weapon made from a Free Electron Laser—essentially a laser made out of a particle accelerator.


    After all these years, though, Boeing still has plenty of work to do to actually build serious FEL weapons. At minimum, the laser would need to reach 100 kilowatts, and so far the free electron laser power record is only 14. Pogue hopes to reach 100 kilowatts in the lab by 2015—and then figure out how the heck to get a particle accelerator on a ship


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    World's most powerful laser to tear apart the vacuum of space

    Due to follow in the footsteps of the Large Hadron Collider, the latest "big science" experiment being proposed by physicists will see the world's most powerful laser being constructed.
    Capable of producing a beam of light so intense that it would be equivalent to the power received by the Earth from the sun focused onto a speck smaller than a tip of a pin, scientists claim it could allow them boil the very fabric of space – the vacuum.

    Contrary to popular belief, a vacuum is not devoid of material but in fact fizzles with tiny mysterious particles that pop in and out of existence, but at speeds so fast that no one has been able to prove they exist.
    The Extreme Light Infrastructure Ultra-High Field Facility would produce a laser so intense that scientists say it would allow them to reveal these particles for the first time by pulling this vacuum "fabric" apart.
    They also believe it could even allow them to prove whether extra-dimensions exist.

    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/8857154/Worlds-most-powerful-laser-to-tear-apart-the-vacuum-of-space.html

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Apparent breakthrough in nuclear fusion silenced by shutdown

      Scientists have come one step closer to harnessing the power of the sun. Researchers at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have passed a milestone in achieving self-sustaining nuclear fusion -- but you won't hear about it from the researchers. The NIF team has been furloughed as a result of the U.S. government shutdown, which began on Oct. 1, and is not releasing updates to the press.

    According to the BBC, a research experiment conducted in late September succeeded in releasing more energy through a fusion reaction than it absorbed by the fuel going in. NIF is the first research facility in the world to achieve this goal. A spokesperson for the NIF could not give CBSNews.com a comment on the results of the experiment.


     NIF's method for achieving fusion involves sending 192 laser beams through a 1,500-meter journey that increases its energy output by a factor of more than a quadrillion. The laser beams' energy grows from one-billionth of a joule to 4 million joules in 5 millionths of a second.

    A breakthrough in nuclear fusion is widely considered the holy grail of achieving an unlimited clean energy source.
    Scientists believe that fusion can fuel our future without threat of nuclear proliferation or environmental damage because the process of creating fusion requires very few resources. One of the biggest challenges in producing energy derived from fusion has been to pass the break-even point -- a goal that has eluded scientists for nearly 50 years.
    Nuclear fusion is not to be confused with nuclear fission. Instead of splitting an atom's nucleus, like in fission, nuclear fusion is the process of bringing together two atomic nuclei to form a new nucleus.
    While the NIF has passed the break-even point, it is just shy of reaching "ignition" -- when nuclear fusion produces as much energy as is supplied to the lasers.


     http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-205_162-57606588/apparent-breakthrough-in-nuclear-fusion-silenced-by-shutdown/

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Weather could be controlled using lasers

    Scientists are attempting to control the weather by using lasers to create clouds, induce rain and even trigger lightning. 

     Experts from around the world are to gather at the World Meteorological Organisation next month to discuss how powerful laser pulses can be used to generate changes in the atmosphere that influence the weather.

    Their experiments have shown that intense pulses of light can cause ice to form and water to condense, leading to the formation of clouds.
    The scientists have now begun testing their equipment outside for the first time with extremely short pulses of laser light were fired into the sky.
    Researchers have also proved that lightning discharges can be triggered and channelled through the air using laser pulses.
    There is a long history of attempts by scientists to control the weather, including using techniques such as cloud seeding.

    This involves spraying small particles and chemicals into the air to induce water vapour to condense into clouds.

    In the 1960s the United States experimented with using silver iodide in an attempt to weaken hurricanes before they made landfall.

    The USSR was also claimed to have flown cloud seeding missions in an attempt to create rain clouds to protect Moscow from radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

    More recently the Russian Air force has also been reported to have used bags of cement to seed clouds.

    Before the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, the Chinese authorities used aircraft and rockets to release chemicals into the atmosphere.
    Other countries have been reported to be experimenting with cloud seeding to prevent flooding or smog.

    However, Professor Wolf, Dr Kasparian and their colleagues believe that lasers could provide an easier and more controllable method of changing the weather.
    They began studying lasers for their use as a way of monitoring changes in the air and detecting aerosols high in the atmosphere.

      http://www.telegraph.co.uk/topics/weather/10268455/Weather-could-be-controlled-using-lasers.html



     ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Laser-induced condensation shows promise for cloud seeding


    Over the past decade, commercially-available lasers have increased in power by two orders of magnitude, reaching the petawatt level, with exawatts firmly within sight. The 2011 experiment used a 100 terawatt laser, and a "mobile" (actually the size of a shipping container) laser of five terawatts.
    Further understanding of how lasers spur condensation will also help. The process, known as photodissociation, involves the laser's photons breaking down atmospheric compounds to produce ozone and nitrogen molecules. Those in turn form nitric acid particles, which bind water molecules together into droplets.

    http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2012-07/17/laser-coud-seeding

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Laser Beams May Be Next Rainmakers-


    http://www.livescience.com/15834-laser-cloud-seed-rain.html



    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Second Conference on Laser, Weather and Climate (LWC 2013) -

    http://www.laserweatherandclimate.com/


    Welcome

    As highlighted by the success of the first Conference on Laser-based Weather Control in 2011, ultra-short lasers launched into the atmosphere have emerged as a promising prospective tool for weather modulation and climate studies. Such prospects include lightning control and laser-assisted condensation, as well as the striking similarities between the non-linear optical propagation and natural phenomena like rogue waves or climate bifurcations.



    Filaments generated by ultra-short laser pulses launched into the atmosphere have emerged as an unexpected prospective tool for weather modulation. In particular, lightning control and laser-assisted water condensation recently appeared as spectacular prospects in this direction.

    Although these new perspectives triggered an increasing interest and activity in many groups worldwide, the highly interdisciplinary nature of the subject limited its development, due to the need for enhanced contacts between laser and atmospheric physicists, chemists, electrical engineers, and meteorologists.

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Climate control: United States weather modification in the cold war and beyond. - 

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18313754



    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Weather modification


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weather_modification

    Proposed US Legislation

    2005 U.S. Senate Bill 517 and U.S. House Bill 2995 U.S. Senate Bill 517 and U.S. House Bill 2995 were two bills proposed in 2005 that would have expanded experimental weather modification, to establish a Weather Modification Operations and Research Board, and implemented a national weather modification policy. Neither were made into law. Former Texas State Senator John N. Leedom was the key lobbyist on behalf of the weather modification bills.

    2007 U.S. Senate Bill 1807 & U.S. House Bill 3445 Senate Bill 1807 and House Bill 3445, identical bills introduced July 17, 2007, proposed to establish a Weather Mitigation Advisory and Research Board to fund weather modification research.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Please stand by as we continue the investigation into DuPont, Monsanto and the climate.

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